Catalog of Madagascar Sphecidae

compiled by

Wojciech J. Pulawski

California Academy of Sciences, 55 Music Concourse Drive, San Francisco, CA 94118 USA
phone: (415) 379-5313

fax: (415) 379-5715;

e-mail: wpulawski@calacademy.org

 

1 November 2000

 

This catalog is meant to include a complete list of Sphecidae known to occur in Madagascar, with complete bibliographic references pertaining to each. Genera and species are listed alphabetically. Data include a reference to the original descriptions, status of the type specimen, the type locality and type depository (in parentheses), as well al all subsequent references and synonyms. Full bibliographic citations can be found at www.calacademy.org (under Academy Research/Entomology/Bibliography of Sphecidae). Institutions where type specimens are deposited are abbreviated as follows:

BMNH: The Natural History Museum, London, formerly British Museum (Natural History), Great Britain;
CAS: California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California, USA.
DEI: Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Eberswalde, German;
FSAG: Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques de Gembloux, Belgium;
Genova: Museo Civico di Storia Naturale »Giacomo Doria«, Genova, Italy;
Kraków: Instytut Systematyki i Ewolucji Zwierzat, Polska Akademia Nauk, Kraków, Poland;
MHNB: Musée d’Histoire Naturelle de Bâle, Bâle (= Basel), Switzerland;
MHNG: Musée d’Histoire Naturelle de Genève, Switzerland;
MNHN: Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France;
MRAC: Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgium;
Napoli: Istituto e Museo di Zoologia dell’Università di Napoli, Napoli, Italy;
NHMW: Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien, Austria;
NRS: Naturhistoriska Ricksmuseet, Stockholm, Sweden;
OXUM: Oxford University Museum, Hope Department of Entomology, Oxford, Great Britain;
SAM: South African Museum, Cape Town, South Africa;
SIF: Senckenbergisches Institut, Frankfurt, Germany;
TMP: Northern Flagship Institution Natural History Museum, formerly Transvaal Museum, Pretoria, South Africa;
Torino: Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Italy;
UK: The University of Kansas, Department of Entomology, Snow Entomological Museum, Lawrence, Kansas, USA;
USNM: United States National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.;
ZIN: Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia;
ZMHU: Zoologisches Museum der Humboldt Universität, Berlin, Germany;
ZMK: Zoological Museum, Copenhagen, Denmark;

 

 

 

As discussed by Arnold (1945:188), the following species recorded from Madagascar by de Saussure (1892) actually do not occur there: Ammophila laevigata F. Smith, Bembix olivacea Fabricius, Chlorion lobatum (Fabricius), Chlorion splendidum Fabricius (as Chlorion forficula de Saussure), Parapsammophila erythrocephala (Fabricius), Sphex sericeus (Fabricius) (as aurulentus Fabricius), Stizus ruficornis Fabricius, and Bembecinus tridentatus (Fabricius). The occurrence of Chalybion spinolae (Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau), also listed by Saussure, was not confirmed by subsequent authors.

 


 

LIST OF GENERA AND SPECIES

 

 

ALYSSON

 

Alysson Panzer, 1806:169. Type species: Pompilus spinosus Panzer, 1801, designated by Morice and Durrant, 1915:406.

Alyson Jurine, 1807:195. Type species: Pompilus spinosus Panzer, 1801, by monotypy.

 

madecassus Arnold

 

Alysson madecassus Arnold, 1945:50, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) . Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: Behara (MNHH). Leclercq, 1960a:100 (Madagascar); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:458 (listed).

 

seyrigi Arnold

 

Alysson seyrigi Arnold, 1945:49, ../female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) (as Seyrigi, incorrect original capitalization). Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , Madagascar: Perinet (MNHN). R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:458 (listed).

AMMATOMUS

 

Ammatomus  A. Costa, 1859:36. Type species: Gorytes coarctatus Spinola, 1808, by monotypy.

biguttatus Arnold

Ammatomus biguttatus  Arnold, 1945:62, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes).   Syntypes: Madagascar: Antanimora, Behara, Bekily, Ivondro (MNHN).  Leclercq, 1961d:102 (Madagascar); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:513 (listed); Madl, 1997:820 (Madagascar: Nosy Boraha Island), 822 (in checklist of Nosy Boraha Sphecidae).

fallax Arnold

Ammatomus fallax Arnold, 1945:61, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Bekily (MNHN).  R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:513 (listed); Leclercq, 1990b:118 (Madagascar).

madecassus (von Schulthess)

Gorytes madecassus  von Schulthess in  Friederichs, 1918:48 (Madagascar: Diego Suarez). Nomen nudum.

Gorytes madescassus von Schulthess, 1918:99, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Holotype: ../images/female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , Madagascar: Diego Suarez (depository?). - As Ammatomus madescassus: Arnold, 1945:64 (new combination, Madagascar; redescription); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:513 (listed); Leclercq, 1990b:118 (Madagascar, Comoro Islands; prey: Flatidae, Cixiidae); Madl, 1997:822 (in checklist of Nosy Boraha Sphecidae).

rubicundus Arnold

Ammatomus rubicundus Arnold, 1945:65, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Bekily (MNHN).  R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:513 (listed); Leclercq, 1990b:118 (Madagascar).

seyrigi Arnold

Ammatomus seyrigi Arnold, 1945:59, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) (as Seyrigi, incorrect original capitalization). Syntypes: Madagascar: Antanimora, Bekily (MNHN).  R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:513 (listed); Hancock, Chahwanda, and Mhlanga, 1995:37 (syntypes in Bulawayo Museum).

 

AMMOPHILA

 

Ammophila W. Kirby, 1798:199. Type species: Sphex sabulosus  Linnaeus, 1758, designated by International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 1946:571 (Opinion 180).

Ammophylus Latreille, 1802b:332. Lapsus or emendation of Ammophila W. Kirby, 1798.

Miscus Jurine, 1807:130, no included species. Type species: Miscus campestris (Latreille, 1809) [=Ammophila campestris Latreille, 1809], designataed by Shuckard, 1837:79 (one of the two species first included in Miscus by Latreille, 1809:54).

Ammophilus Latreille, 1829:322. Lapsus or emendation of Ammophila  W. Kirby, 1798.

Coloptera Latreille, 1845:387. Type species: Coloptera barbara  Lepeletier, 1845, by monotypy.

Argyrammophila Gussakovskij, 1928a:7. Type species: Ammophila induta Kohl, 1901, by original designation.

Apycnemia Leclercq, 1961c:211. Type species: Ammophila fallax Kohl, 1884 [= Ammophila hungarica Mocsáry, 1883], by original designation.

beniniensis imerinae de Saussure

Ammophila imerinae de Saussure, 1892:435, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) . Syntypes: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) , Madagascar: Imerina, Antananarivo, Anosibé (MHNG).  Arnold, 1945:87 (as junior synonym of Sphex beninensis, Madagascar).  As Ammophila lugubris var. imerinae: Kohl, 1909:371 (new status;Comoro Islands, Madagascar, Europa Island in Mozambique Channel).  As Ammophila beninensis imerinae: R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:151 (new status, listed).

As Ammophila rubiginosa: de Saussure, 1892:435 (Madagascar), corrected to Sphex beninensis by Arnold, 1945:87; von Schulthess in Friederichs, 1918:48 (Madagascar: Diego Suarez), present correction.

 

AMMOPLANUS

 

Ammoplanus Giraud, 1869:469. Type species: Ammoplanus perrisi Giraud, 1869 [? = Ammoplanus wesmaeli Giraud, 1869], designated by Pate, 1937c:7.

Hoplocrabron De Stefani Perez, 1887:60. Type species: Hoplocrabron marathroicus De-Stefani, 1887, by monotypy.

Ammoplanellus Gussakovskij, 1931b:442 (as subgenus of Ammoplanus). Type species: Ammoplanus chorasmius Gussakovskij, 1931, by original designation. Raised to genus status by R. Bohart in Bohart and Menke, 1976:42, and treated as subgenus by Marshakov (1976a, 1979).

Ceballosia Giner Marí, 1943c:285, junior homonym of Ceballosia Mercet, 1921. Type species: Ammoplanus rjabovi Gussakovskij, 1931, by original designation.

Parammoplanus  Pate, 1939:391. Type species: Ammoplanus apache Pate, 1937, by original designation. Treated as subgenus of Ammoplanellus  by R. Bohart in  Bohart and Menke, 1976:42.

brevicornis Arnold

Ammoplanus brevicornis Arnold, 1945:146, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) . Syntypes: Madagascar: Bekily (MNHN).  Arnold, 1945:144 (in key); Leclercq, 1959a:25 (in key); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:198 (listed).

claripennis Arnold

Ammoplanus claripennis Arnold, 1945:147, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) . Syntypes: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: Bekily (MNHN).  Arnold, 1945:144 (in key); Leclercq, 1959a:25 (in key).  As Ammoplanellus claripennis: R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:198 (new combination, listed).

egregius Arnold

Ammoplanus egregius Arnold, 1945:148, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Holotype: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) , Madagascar: Bekily (MNHN).  Arnold, 1945:144 (in key); Leclercq, 1959a:25 (in key); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:198 (listed).

jucundus Arnold

Ammoplanus jucundus Arnold, 1945:145, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Bekily (MNHN).  Arnold, 1945:144 (in key); Leclercq, 1959a:25 (in key); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:198 (listed); Leclercq, 1990b:120 (Madagascar).

madecassus Kohl

Ammoplanus madecassus Kohl, 1909:374, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) . Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , Madagascar: Toliara (ZMHU or SIF)  Arnold, 1945:144 (in key); Pate, 1937a:104 (placed in subgenus Ammoplanellus); Leclercq, 1959a:26 (in key).  As Ammoplanellus madecassus: R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:198 (new combination, listed).

orientalis Arnold

Ammoplanus madecassus var. orientalis Arnold, 1945:148, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) . Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , Madagascar: Bekily (MNHN).  Arnold, 1945:144 (in key); Leclercq, 1959a:25 (in key).  As Ammoplanellus orientalis: R. Bohart in Bohart and Menke, 1976:200 (new combination, new status).

 

AMPULEX

 

Ampulex Jurine, 1807:132. Type species: Chlorion compressum of Latreille and of Fabricius [= Chlorion compressum (Fabricius, 1804) = Sphex compressus Fabricius, 1781, designated by Audouin, 1822:301.

Pronaeus Latreille, 1809:56. Type species: Dryinus aeneus Fabricius, 1804, designated by Latreille, 1810:438.

Lorrhoeum Shuckard, 1837:18. Type species: Chlorion compressum (Fabricius, 1804) [= Sphex compressus Fabricius, 1781], by original designation and monotypy.

Rhinopsis Westwood, 1844:68. Type species: Rhinopsis abbotti Westwood, 1844 [= Ampulex canaliculata Say, 1823, by monotypy.

Waagenia Kriechbaumer, 1874:55. Type species: Waagenia sikkimensis Kriechbaumer, 1874, by monotypy.

Chlorampulex de Saussure, 1892:441. Type species: Sphex compressus Fabricius, 1781, designated by Pate, 1937c:18.

compressa (Fabricius)

Sphex compressus Fabricius, 1781:445, sex not indicated (as compressa, incorrect original termination). Holotype or syntypes: India: Kerala: Malabar (BMNH, Banks coll.).  Fabricius, 1787:275, 1793:206.  As Chlorion compressum: Fabricius, 1804:219 (new combination, redescription); Gistel, 1848:142 (Bourbon Island, description); Lucas, 1879:CLIX (prey: Blatta americana).  As Chlorampulex compressa: de Saussure, 1892:443 (in key), 445 (new combination, redescription, Madagascar); Nagy, 1971:103 (s. India, Singapore).   As Ampulex compressa: Jurine, 1807:134 (new combination, comparison with Ampulex fasciata); Spinola, 1841:100 (diagnostic characters); Dahlbom, 1843:29 (redescription), 1845:439 (in key); F. Smith, 1856:268 (listed, wing venation variable), 1858a:99 (Moluccas, Borneo); Motschulsky, 1863:24 (Sri Lanka); Taschenberg, 1869:407 (India); Gerstaecker, 1871:852 (Kenya: Mombasa, Tanzania: Wanga); Radoszkowski, 1891:580 (male genitalia); Kohl, 1893d:474, 482 (redescribed in key), 491 (listed, synonymy), 1883e:183 (Zanzibar); Pérez, 1895b:210 (Seychelles Islands, as compressus); Bingham, 1896a:441 (Sri Lanka: Pundaluoya), 1897:254 (redescription; Oriental Region to Africa); Dalla Torre, 1897:373 (listed); Bingham, 1902:217 (Pemba Island), 1903a:67 (Pemba Island); Cameron, 1903c:238 (listed); Rothney, 1903:105 (India: West Bengal: Barrackpore); Ashmead, 1904d:151 (Philippines); Cameron, 1907e:76 (Seychelles Islands); Vachal, 1907:114 and 1908:23 (New Caledonia, as compressus); Kohl, 1909:369 (Kenya: Mombasa; Tanzania: Pemba Island); Turner, 1911b:368 (Seychelles Islands); Bordage, 1912:71 (Réunion Island: life history); Dutt, 1912:227 (preying on Periplaneta americana, dragging paralyzed prey); R. Turner, 1919b:238 (New Caledonia); Arnold, 1928a:221 (revision); Williams, 1942:221 (life history); Giner Marí, 1945c:850 (India: Maharashtra: Bandra); Van Zwaluwenburg, 1950:14 (new to Molokai, Hawaii); Leclercq, 1954b:150 (Mauritius, Zanzibar, Ethiopia: Daghabur), 1961d:101 (Saussure's records from Madagascar are doubtful); van der Vecht, 1961a:11 (study of type); Guiglia, 1964:309 (southern Arabia); Begum and Bose, 1976:26 (Bangladesh: Dakka); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:77 (listed); Leclercq, 1976b:201 (St. Helena Island), 202 (Madagascar); Krombein, 1979a:6 (Sri Lanka, revision); Casolari and Casolari Moreno, 1980:110 (specimens in M. Spinola collection); Piek, Visser, and Veenendaal, 1984:195 (hunting and ovipositing, effects of sting on prey behavior); Wu and Chou, 1985:154 (in key); Begum, Bose, and Howlander, 1989:127 life history in Bangladesh); Leclercq, 1990b:114 (Madagascan records questionable); Begum, Khan, and Bose, 1995:174 (Bangladesh: Dhaka University Campus); Wu and Zhou, 1996:22 (revision in Economic Insect Fauna of China); Wcislo, 1998:181 (proportions of antennae in relations to parasitic/non-parasitic behavior); Libersat, Haspel, Casagrand, and Fouad, 1999:333 (the sting of prey’s subesophageal ganglion blocks fast motoneurons); Weisel-Eichler, Haspel, and Libersat, 1999:957 (sting induces prolonged grooming in prey).

Ampulex sinensis de Saussure, 1867:43, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) . Holotype or syntypes: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) , China: Hong Kong (NHMW). Synonymized with Ampulex compressa by Gerstaecker, 1871:852

Chlorampulex striolata de Saussure, 1892:446, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Holotype or syntypes: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , Tanzania: Zanzibar: no specific locality (MHNG).  de Saussure, 1892:443 (in key).  As Ampulex striolata: Kohl, 1893d:502 (new combination, original description copied); Dalla Torre, 1897:377 (listed); Arnold, 1928a:227 (original description translated into English.

 

ASTATA

 

Astata Latreille, 1796:xiii. Emendation of Astatus Latreille, 1796:114.

Astatus Latreille, 1796:114 (no species included). Type species: Tiphia abdominalis Panzer, 1798 [= Sphex boops Schrank, 1781], designated by Latreille, 1802b:337 (first included species). See also International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 1943a, Opinion 139.

Dimorpha Panzer, 1806:26. Type species: Tiphia abdominalis Panzer, 1798 [= Sphex boops Schrank, 1781], by monotypy.

blanda de Saussure

Astatus blandus de Saussure, 1892:519, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) , Madagascar: Anosibé in Bezanozano Province (MHNG).  As Astata blanda: Arnold, 1945:43 (in key); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:212 (listed); Leclercq, 1990b:114 (Madagascar: Tsimbazaza; keyed).

minax Arnold

Astata minax Arnold, 1945:43, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Bekily (MNHN).  R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:212 (listed); Leclercq, 1990b:114 (Madagascar, keyed); Hancock, Chahwanda, and Mhlanga, 1995:37 (one syntype in Bulawayo Museum).

ruficaudata hova Arnold

Astata ruficaudata hova Arnold, 1945:46, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Behara, Bekily (MNHN).  Leclercq, 1960a:96 (Madagascar); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:213 (listed); Leclercq, 1990b:114 (Madagascar, keyed); Hancock, Chahwanda, and Mhlanga, 1995:37 (syntypes in Bulawayo Museum).

rufofemorata Arnold

Astata rufofemorata Arnold, 1945:44, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Behara, Bekily (MNHN).  Leclercq, 1960a:97 (Madagascar); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:213 (listed); Leclercq, 1990b:114 (in key), 115 (Madagascar); Hancock, Chahwanda, and Mhlanga, 1995:37 (syntypes in Bulawayo Museum).

 

BEMBECINUS

 

Bembecinus A. Costa, 1859:4. Type species: Bembecinus meridionalis A. Costa, 1859, by monotypy.

Stizomorphus A. Costa, 1959:7. Type species: Vespa tridens Fabricius, 1781, by monotypy.

Gorystizus Minkiewicz, 1934:252. Not available: type species not designated (Article 13b).

Gorystizus Pate, 1937c:29. Type species: Vespa tridens Fabricius, 1781, by original designation. Validation of Gorystizus Minkiewicz, 1934.

Lavia Rayment, 1953:23. Nomen nudum.

assentator (Arnold)

Stizus assentator Arnold, 1945:72, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) . Syntypes: Madagascar: Bekily (MNHN).  As Bembecinus assentator: Leclercq, 1961d:102 (Madagascar, new combination); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:530 (listed); Leclercq, 1990b:118 (Madagascar; male sternum VII dentate).

brooksi R. Bohart

Bembecinus brooksi R. Bohart, 1997a:172, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Holotype: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes), Madagascar: Toliara: Beza Mahafaly Reserve (UK).

hirtiusculus (Arnold)

Stizus hirtiusculus Arnold, 1945:74, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes), female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) . Syntypes: Madagascar: Antanimora, Bekily (MNHN).  As Bembecinus hirtiusculus: R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:531 (new combination).

mirus (Arnold)

Stizus mirus Arnold, 1945:69, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) , female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Amboasary, Behara, Bekily (MNHN).  Leclercq, 1960a:100 (Madagascar); Hancock, Chahwanda, and Mhlanga, 1995:40 (syntypes in Bulawayo Museum).  As Bembecinus mirus: Leclercq, 1961d:103 (Madagascar, new combination); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:531 (listed); Leclercq, 1990b:119 (Madagascar); Madl, 1997:820 (Madagascar: Nosy Boraha Island), 822 (in checklist of Nosy Boraha Sphecidae).

rectilateralis (Arnold)

Stizus rectilateralis Arnold, 1945:75, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) . Syntypes: Madagascar: Antanimora, Ranomafana (MNHN).  As Bembecinus rectilateralis: Leclercq, 1961d:103 (new combination); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:532 (listed).

spinicornis (de Saussure)

Stizolarra spinicornis de Saussure, 1887:9, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) . Holotype: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) , Madagascar: no specific locality (MNHN); see de Saussure, 1892:468 for type status.  As Stizolarra spinicornis: de Saussure, 1892:467 (Madagascar, redescription).  As Stizus spinicornis: Handlirsch, 1892:42 (new combination, original description copied), 1895:972 (redescription); Dalla Torre, 1897:531 (listed).   As Bembecinus spinicornis: R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:532 (listed); Leclercq, 1990b:119 (Madagascar, type in MNHN); R. Bohart, 1997a:177 (discussion of synonymy with varians); Madl, 1997:820 (Madagascar: Nosy Boraha Island), 822 (in checklist of Nosy Boraha Sphecidae).

Stizus varians Arnold, 1945:73, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) . Syntypes: Madagascar: Bekily (MNHN). Synonymized with Bembecinus spinicornis by Leclercq, 1990b:119.  As Bembecinus varians: Leclercq, 1961d:103 (Madagascar, new combination); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:532 (listed).

wenzeli R. Bohart

Bembecinus wenzeli R. Bohart, 1997a:176, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) . Holotype: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) , Madagascar: Toliara: 38 km N Toliara (KU).

 

BEMBIX

 

Variant but improper spellings: Bembex and Bembyx (transfer from Bembex to Bembix does not require parentheses for the author: Article 51.3)

Bembix Fabricius, 1775: Characteres Generum, p. [= xxiii], no included species. Type species: Bembex rostrata of Fabricius, 1781 [= Apis rostrata Linnaeus, 1758], designated by Latreille, 1810:438 (one of three species included in Bembyx by Fabricius, 1775:361). Morice and Durrant (1915:400) gave the first type species designation for the spelling of Bembix: Apis rostrata Linnaeus, 1757.

Bembyx Fabricius, 1775:361. Lapsus for Bembix Fabricius, 1775.

Bembex Fabricius, 1776:122. Emendation of Bembix Fabricius, 1775.

Apobembex Pate, 1937c:9. Type species: Bembex oculata of Latreille, 1805 [= Bembex oculata Panzer, 1801], by original designation.

Epibembex Pate, 1937c:26. Type species: Apis rostrata Linnaeus, 1758, by original designation.

hova de Saussure

Bembex hova de Saussure, 1892:457, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) (male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) = Bembex madecassa). Lectotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , Madagascar: Antananarivo (MHNG), designated by Leclercq, 1961d:104.  Nec de Saussure, 1892:458 (male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) only) and Handlirsch, 1893:734 (male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) only) = Bembix madecassa; Kohl, 1909:373 (Madagascar: Andranohinaly).   As Bembix hova: Arnold, 1945:81 (Madagascar; redescription); Leclercq, 1960a:100 (Madagascar), 1961d:104 (Madagascar; in key); Bohart and Menke, 1976:546 (listed); Madl, 1997:821 (Madagascar: Nosy Boraha Island), 822 (in checklist of Nosy Boraha Sphecidae).

As Bembex madecassa: Handlirsch, 1893:734, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) (Madagascar), corrected to Bembix hova by Arnold, 1945:81.

latebrosa Kohl

Bembex latebrosa Kohl, 1909:373, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Tulear (ZMHU or SIF).  As Bembix latebrosa: Arnold, 1945:83 (Madagascar; redescription); Leclercq, 1960a:100 (Madagascar), 1961d:104 (in key), 105 (Madagascar); Bohart and Menke, 1976:547 (listed).

madecassa de Saussure

Bembex madecassa de Saussure, 1890: pl. 11, fig. 2, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , illustrated specimen, Madagascar: no specific locality (MHNG).  de Saussure, 1892:456 (Madagascar, redescription); Handlirsch, 1893c:818 (revision), 1895:1003 (Comoro Islands); Kohl, 1909:373 (Madagascar: Tamatave, Toliara); R. Turner, 1911b:371 (Seychelles Islands).   As Bembix madecassa: J. Parker, 1929:139 (revision); Arnold, 1945:79 (Madagascar; redescription); Leclercq, 1960a:100 (Madagascar), 1961d:104 (in key), 105 (Madagascar); Bohart and Menke, 1976:547 (listed); Madl, 1997:821 (Madagascar: Nosy Boraha Island), 822 (in checklist of Nosy Boraha Sphecidae).

Bembix militaris de Saussure, 1890: pl. 11, figs. 3, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) . Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , illustrated specimen, Madagascar: no specific locality (ZMHU). Synonymized with Bembix madecassa by Arnold, 1945:79.

Bembex madecassa de Saussure, 1891:260, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) . Objective synonym of Bembex madecassa de Saussure, 1891. Lectotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , Madagascar: Antananarivo (MHNG), unnecessary designation by Leclercq, 1961d:105.  de Saussure, 1892:456 (Madagascar, redescription).

Bembex militaris de Saussure, 1891:260, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) . Objective synonym of Bembex militaris de Saussure, 1890. Lectotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , Madagascar: no specific locality (MHNG), unnecessary designation by Leclercq, 1961d:105

Bembix militaris de Saussure, 1892:459, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) . Objective synonym of Bembex madecassa de Saussure, 1890.

Bembex crinita de Saussure, 1891:260, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) . Lectotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , Madagascar: no specific locality (MHNG), designated by Leclercq, 1961d:105. Synonymized with Bembix madecassa by de Saussure, 1892:456.

As Bembex hova: de Saussure, 1892:458 (male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) only) and Handlirsch, 1893c:734 (revision, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) only), female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) corrected to Bembix madecassa by Arnold, 1945:79.

 

CARINOSTIGMUS

 

Carinostigmus Tsuneki, 1954a:3. Types species: Stigmus congruus Walker, 1860, by original designation.

Perissostigmus Krombein, 1984c:18, as subgenus of Carinostigmus. Type species: Carinostigmus bucheilus Krombein, by original designation and monotypy.

nubilipennis (Arnold)

Stigmus nubilipennis Arnold, 1945:149, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Ambositra, Bekily, Ivondro, Ranomafana (MNHN).  Arnold, 1945:149 (in key).  As Carinostigmus nubilipennis: R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:191 (listed; new combination).

tenellus (Arnold)

Stigmus tenellus Arnold, 1945:151, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) . Syntypes: Madagascar: Bekily (MNHN).  Arnold, 1945:149 (in key).  As Carinostigmus tenellus: R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:191 (listed; new combination).

 

CERCERIS

 

Cerceris Latreille, 1802b:367. Type species: Philanthus ornatus Fabricius, 1790 [= Sphex rybyensis Linnaeus, 1771], designated by Latreille, 1810:438.

Nectanebus Spinola, 1839:489. Type species: Nectanebus fischeri Spinola, 1839, secondary homomym of Cerceris fischeri Spinola, 1839 [= Nectanebus histerisnicus Spinola, 1839], designated by Pate, 1937c:42 (said to be by original designation). Synonymized with Cerceris Latreille, 1802, by R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:55.

Diamma Dahlbom, 1844:225. Type species: Diamma spinolae Dahlbom, 1844 [= Cerceris binodis Spinola, 1841], by monotypy. Junior homonym of Diamma Westwood, 1835.

Didesmus Dahlbom, 1845:502 Replacement name for Diamma Dahlbom, 1844.

Apiraptrix Shestakov, 1923:101. Type species: Cerceris rybyensis (Linnaeus, 1771) [= Sphex rybyensis Linnaeus, 1771], by original designation.  Apiratryx Balthasar, 1972:387 and 397 (lapsus).

Paracerceris Brèthes, 1913b:127. Type species: Paracerceris tridentifera Brèthes, 1913 [= Cerceris pollens Schletterer, 1887, by monotypy.

Apicerceris Minkiewicz, 1934:253. Not available: type species not designated (Article 13b).

Bucerceris Minkiewicz, 1934:253. Type species: Cerceris bupresticida Dufour, 1841, by monotypy.

Stercobata Gussakovskij, 1935:445. Type species: Cerceris bupresticida Dufour, 1841, by monotypy.

Apicerceris Pate, 1937c:8. Type species: Sphex rybyensis Linnaeus, 1771, by original designation. Validation of Apicerceris Minkiewicz, 1934.

 

          aemula Arnold

 

Cerceris aemula Arnold, 1945:37, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Bekily, Ivondro (MNHN).  Empey, 1969a:300 (listed); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:576 (listed); Empey, 1983:163 (type examined, reference to holotype incorrect).

 

          aemuloides Leclercq

 

Cerceris aemuloides Leclercq, 1962b:209, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) . Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: Rogez (MRAC).  R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:579 (listed); Empey, 1983:163 (listed).

argentifrons Guérin-Méneville

Cerceris argentifrons Guérin-Méneville, 1844:445, [female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes)]. Lectotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: no specific locality (Genova), designated by Guiglia, 1948b:179 (Article 74.6).  F. Smith, 1856:450 (listed); Schletterer, 1887:486 (listed); de Saussure, 1892:555 (original description copied); Guiglia, 1948b:179 (type in Genova), 187 (redescription).  Leclercq, 1961d:102 (Madagascar), 1962b:211 (Madagascar: Bekily); Empey, 1969a:301 (listed); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:577 (listed); Empey, 1983:164 (listed).

Cerceris albotegulata Arnold, 1945:40, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Antanimora, Bekily, Behara, Ivondro (MNHN). Synonymized with Cerceris argentifrons by Guiglia, 1948b:187, by Leclercq, 1961d:102, and conditionally by Empey, 1969a:301.  R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:577 (as questionable synonym of Cerceris argentifrons); Empey, 1983:164 (reference to holotype is incorrect); Hancock, Chahwanda, and Mhlanga, 1995:37 (syntypes in Bulawayo Museum).

beharensis Leclercq

Cerceris beharensis Leclercq, 1967b:63, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Holotype: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes), Madagascar: Behara (MNHN).  R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:577 (listed); Empey, 1983:166 (listed).

clypearis de Saussure

Cerceris clypearis de Saussure, 1887:25, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Holotype or syntypes: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: no specific locality (MNHN, now probably lost: Empey, 1983:167). – de Saussure, 1892:541 (Madagascar, redescription); Arnold, 1945:22 (Madagascar; redescription); Empey, 1969a:303 (listed); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:579 (listed); Empey, 1983:167 (type material missing).

dentiventris Arnold

Cerceris dentiventris Arnold, 1945:35, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Behara, Bekily, Ivondro (MNHN).  R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:579 (listed); Empey, 1983:167 (listed, holotype examined); Madl, 1997:821 (Madagascar: Nosy Boraha Island, as dentriventris), 822 (in checklist of Nosy Boraha Sphecidae, as dentriventris).

duchesnei Arnold

Cerceris duchesnei Arnold, 1945:31, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) (as Duchesnei, incorrect original capitalization). Syntypes: Madagascar: Ambovimbi, Antananarivo, Bekily (MNHN). – Leclercq, 1961d:102 (Madagascar); Empey, 1969a:305 (listed, as duchnesei); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:580 (listed); Empey, 1983:169 (listed, holotype examined).

formidolosa de Saussure

 

Cerceris formidolosa de Saussure, 1891:261, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Lectotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , Madagascar: no specific locality (MHNG), designated by Empey, 1983:171 (Article 74.6).  de Saussure, 1892:547 (Madagascar, redescription); Arnold, 1945:41 (Madagascar; redescription); Leclercq, 1962b:211 (Madagascar: Rogez); Empey, 1969a:308 (listed); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:581 (listed); Madl, 1997:821 (Madagascar: Nosy Boraha Island), 822 (in checklist of Nosy Boraha Sphecidae).

gallienii Arnold

 

Cerceris gallienii Arnold, 1945:32, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) (as Gallienii, incorrect original capitalization). Lectotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: Fort Dauphin (MNHN), designated by Empey, 1983:172 (Article 74.6).  Leclercq, 1962b:211 (Madagascar: Rogez); Empey, 1969a:308 (listed); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:581 (listed, as gallieni); Empey, 1983:172 (listed); Hancock, Chahwanda, and Mhlanga, 1995:37 (syntypes in Bulawayo Museum).

Cerceris augagneuri Arnold, 1945:34, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) (as Augagneuri, incorrect original capitalization). Syntypes: Madagascar: Antsirabé (MNHN). Synonymized with Cerceris gallienii by Leclercq, 1962b:211.  Empey, 1969a:302 (listed); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:577 (listed); Empey, 1983:165 (listed, type examined).

 

          ssp. bekiliensis Arnold

 

Cerceris Gallienii var. bekiliensis Arnold, 1945:34, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) . Syntypes: Madagascar: Bekily (MNHN), designated by Empey, 1983:173 (Article 74.6).  As Cerceris gallieni bekilensis: Empey, 1969a:308 (new status, listed); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:581 (listed); Empey, 1983:172 (listed).

 

          hildebrandti de Saussure

 

Cerceris hildebrandti de Saussure, 1891:261, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) (as Hildebrandti, incorrect original capitalization). Holotype or syntypes: Madagascar: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), no specific locality (missing: Empey, 1983:173).  Empey, 1969a:301 (listed); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:582 (listed).

 

          lateridentata Arnold

 

Cerceris lateridentata Arnold, 1945:26, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) . Lectotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: Ivondro (MNHN), designated by Empey, 1983:177 (Article 74.6).  Empey, 1969a:312 (listed); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:583 (listed).

 

          nenicra de Saussure

 

Cerceris nenicra de Saussure, 1887:25, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) . Lectotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: Nosibe (MHNG), designated by Empey, 1983:180.  R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:584 (listed).  As Cerceris nenitra (a misspelling): de Saussure, 1892:551 (Madagascar, redescription); R. Turner, 1911b:370 (Seychelles Islands); Arnold, 1945:42 (Madagascar; redescription); Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1956b:362 (Seychelles, as renitra); Leclercq, 1961d:102 (Madagascar), 1962b:212 (Madagascar); Empey, 1969a:316 (listed).

Cerceris perfoveata Arnold, 1947:167, female_symbol.jpg (1680 bytes) . Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , Madagascar: Ivondro (MNHN). Synonymized with Cerceris nenicra by Empey, 1983:180.  Empey, 1969a:318 (listed, possibly dark form of Cerceris nenit ra); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:585 (listed).

 

           paleata de Saussure

 

Cerceris paleata de Saussure, 1891:262, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) . Lectotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: Andreagoloka (MHNG), designated by Empey, 1983:182 (Article 74.6).  de Saussure, 1892:543 (Madagascar, redescription); Arnold, 1945:24 (Madagascar; redescription); Leclercq, 1962b:212 (Madagascar: Mandraka); Empey, 1969a:318 (listed); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:585 (listed).

Cerceris carnaria de Saussure, 1892:545, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Lectotype: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) , Madagascar: Antananarivo and Bezanozano Province: Anosibé (MHNG). Synonymized with Cerceris paleata by Arnold, 1945:24.

 

           perfida de Saussure

 

Cerceris perfida de Saussure, 1890:pl. 19 fig. 10, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), illustrated specimen, Madagascar: no specific locality (MHNG).  de Saussure, 1892:549 (Madagascar, redescription); Arnold, 1945:23 (Madagascar; redescription); Leclercq, 1962b:212 (Madagascar: Rogez); Empey, 1969a:318 (listed); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:585 (listed); Empey, 1983:183 (listed, type examined); Hancock, Chahwanda, and Mhlanga, 1995:38 (specimen in Bulawayo Museum).

Cerceris perfida de Saussure, 1891:262, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) . Objective synonym of Cerceris perfida de Saussure, 1890.

Cerceris spinifrons de Saussure, 1891:262, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Holotype or syntypes: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes), Madagascar: no specific locality (MHNG, type missing: Empey, 1983:183). Synonymized with Cerceris perfida by Arnold, 1945:23.

 

              petiolata de Saussure

 

Cerceris petiolata de Saussure, 1891:261, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Lectotype: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) , Madagascar: Andreagoloka (MHNG), designated by Empey, 1983:183.  Arnold, 1945:38 (Madagascar; redescription); Empey, 1969a:318 (listed); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:585 (listed); Empey, 1983:183 (listed).

Cerceris petiolata de Saussure, 1892:555, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Objective synonym of Cerceris petiolata de Saussure, 1891.

 

             rasoherinae Arnold

 

Cerceris rasoherinae Arnold, 1945:29, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) (as Rasoherinae, incorrect original capitalization). Lectotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: Bekily (MNHN), designated by Empey, 1983:184 (Article 74.6).  Empey, 1969a:320 (listed); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:586 (listed).

Cerceris rasoherinae var. debilis Arnold, 1945:30, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Lectotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: Bekily (MNHN), designated by Empey, 1983:185 (Article 74.6). Synonymized with Cerceris rasoherinae by Empey, 1983:202.  As Cerceris rasoherinae debilis: Empey, 1969a:320 (new status); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:586 (listed).

seyrigi Arnold

 

Cerceris seyrigi Arnold, 1945:27, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), nec male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) (as Seyrigi, incorrect original capitalization). Lectotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: Bekily (MNHN), designated by Empey, 1983:188 (Article 74.6).  Empey, 1969a:322 (listed); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:587 (listed); Empey, 1983:188 (the male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) described by Arnold is an undescribed species).

spirans de Saussure

 

Cerceris spirans de Saussure, 1892:553, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) . Lectotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: Bezanozano Province: Anosibé (MHNG), designated by Empey, 1983:189.  Arnold, 1945:19 (citation); Empey, 1969a:323 (listed); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:587 (listed).

 

              xanthostigma Arnold

 

Cerceris xanthostigma Arnold, 1945:39, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , Madagascar: Rogez in East Coast Forest (MNHN).  R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:589 (listed); Empey, 1983:193 (listed, type examined).

CHALYBION

Chalybion Dahlbom, 1843:21. Type species: "Chalybion caeruleum" [= Sphex caeruleus of Linnaeus, 1767:941 = Sphex caeruleus Linnaeus, 1763 (nec Sphex caeruleus Linnaeus, 1758) = Sphex cyaneus Fabricius, 1775 (nec Sphex cyaneus Linnaeus, 1758) = Pelopeus (sic) californicus de Saussure, 1867], designated by Patton, 1880a:378.

Chalybium Agassiz, 1846:77. Emendation of Chalybion Dahlbom, 1843.

Chalybium W. Schulz, 1906:192. Emendation of Chalybion Dahlbom, 1843, homonym of Chalybium Agassiz, 1846.

Hemichalybion Kohl, 1918:79. Type species: Pelopoeus eckloni Dahlbom, 1845, designated by Pate, 1937c:30.

bonneti Leclercq

Chalybion bonneti Leclercq, 1966:55, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) . Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , Madagascar: Tamatave (FSAG).  R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:102 (listed); Hensen, 1988:25 (revision).

madecassum (Gribodo)

Pelopoeus madecassus Gribodo, 1883a:263, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Lectotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: no specific locality (Genova), designated by Hensen, 1988:27.  As Sceliphron madecassum: Kohl, 1906a:193, 196 (in key), 1909:370 (Comoro Islands); Turner, 1911b:368 (Seychelles Islands); Kohl, 1918:65 (revision); Arnold, 1945:86 (Madagascar).   As Chalybion madecassum: Leclercq, 1953b:211 (Madagascar); Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1956b:362 (Seychelles); Leclercq, 1961d:106 (Madagascar), 1966:56 (comparison with Chalybion bonnenti; Hensen, 1988:27 (revision); Madl, Matyot, and Schödl, 1996:831 (Seychelles Islands); Madl, 1997:819 (Madagascar: Nosy Boraha Island), 821 (in checklist of Nosy Boraha Sphecidae).

As Sceliphron violaceum: de Saussure, 1892:449 (Madagascar), corrected to Sceliphron madecassum by Kohl, 1906a:193; Friederichs, 1918:33, 42 (life history) and von Schulthess in Friederichs, 1918:48 (Madagascar: Antananarivo, Diego Suarez), corrected to Chalybion madecassum by Hensen, 1988:27; Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1950:75 (new to Seychelles Islands), corrected to Chalybion madecassum by Hensen, 1988:27.

Sceliphron purpurascens Pérez, 1895:211, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Lectotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: no specific locality (MNHN), designated by Hensen, 1988:27. Synonymized with Sceliphron madecassum by Kohl, 1906a:193.

As Sceliphron bengalense: Cameron, 1907:76 (Seychelles Islands), corrected to Sceliphron madecassum by R. Turner, 1911b:369.

 

CHLORION

 

Chlorion Latreille, 1802b:333. Type species: Sphex lobatus Fabricius, 1775, by monotypy.

Chlorium W. Schulz, 1906:193. Emendation of Chlorion Latreille, 1802.

maxillosum ciliatum (Fabricius)

Sphex ciliatus Fabricius, 1787:275, sex not indicated (as ciliata, incorrect original termination). Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , India (in error): no specific locality (ZMK).  Dalla Torre, 1897:418 (listed).  As Pronoeus ciliatum: Dahlbom, 1845:XXII (new combination, listed).  As Chlorion ciliatum: Fabricius, 1804:218 (new combination, redescription); van der Vecht, 1961a:35 (redescription of holotype); Leclercq, l969:1047 (Congo Brazzaville).  As Chlorion maxillosum ciliatum: R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:90 (listed); Dollfuss, 1990:122 (Central African Republic).

Sphex xanthoceros Illiger, 1801:193,: Sierra Leone.   Synonymized with Chlorion ciliatum by van der Vecht, 1961a:36.  Strand, 1916b:102 (Angola: Benguela; original description copied and discussed).  As Sphex xanthocerus: Kohl, 1890:183 (revision), 1883e:183 (Tanzania: Bagamoyo); Bingham, 1902:215 (Malawi); Brauns, 1911a:118 (South Africa: Orange Free State); Morice, 1911:74 (Algeria: Bône); Bischoff, 1912:221 (Zaire: Kivu: N shore of Lake Kivu); Mantero, 1915:324 (Libya); Gennerich, 1922:41 (morphology); Berland, 1925c:154 (Angola), 1926b:164 (miscellaneous locality records); Schouteden, 1930:95 (Zaire); Valdeyron-Fabre, 1952:107 (prey: Brachytrypes megacephalus Lepeletier), 1955:152 (preying behavior); Berland, 1956:1162 (in revision of African Sphecini).  As Chlorion xanthocerum: Arnold, 1928c:347 (revision), 1943:77 (Zaire).  As Chlorion xanthoceros: Leclercq, 1955h:40 (bibliographic references, variation), 43 (locality records), 1955i:405 (Rwanda), 1961b:47 (Zaire, as xanthoceros xanthoceros).

Chlorion mandibulare Fabricius, 1804:218, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) . Syntypes: Guinea: no specific locality (ZMK). Synonymized with Sphex xanthocerus by Kohl, 1890:183.  de Saussure, 1867:37 (review of variation).   As Pronaeus mandibularis: F. Smith, 1856:239 (listed); Magretti, 1884b:578 (Sudan: Bahr el Salaam); Casolari and Casolari Moreno, 1980:110 (specimens in M. Spinola collection).  As Sphex mandibularis: Kohl, 1885b:175 (in revision of Palearctic Sphex); Ed. André, 1888:122 (in revision of Sphecidae of Europe and Algeria), 6* (bibliographic references).   As Chlorion ciliatum mandibulare: van der Vecht, 1961a:37 (new status, redescription of syntypes).

Pepsis maxillaris Palisot de Beauvois, 1805:plate 1.   As Pronaeus maxillaris: Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, 1845:331 (revision); F. Smith, 1856:239 (listed); Radoszkowski, 1881:211 (Angola); Magretti, 1884b:579 (Sudan: Bahr el Salaam); Bradley, 1957:43 (Lepeletier's specimens in Turin); Casolari and Casolari Moreno, 1980:110 (specimens in M. Spinola collection).  As Sphex maxillaris: Schouteden, 1930:95 (Zaire).  As Sphex xanthocerus var. maxillaris: Kohl, 1883e:183 (Mozambique); W. Fox, 1896e:551 (Ethiopia: the Haud tribal area); Bischoff, 1912:221 (border of Zaire and Uganda); Berland, 1952b:275 (boundary of Ivory Coast, Guinea, and Liberia: Mt. Nimba), 1956:1163 (in revision of African Sphecini).  As Chlorion maxillaris: Gribodo, 1894:137 (Mozambique: Magnarra River).  As Chlorion xanthocerum var. maxillaris: Arnold, 1928c:348 (revision); Scott in Arnold, 1933a:370 (Ethiopia: Harar District and Buno, as maxillare); Guiglia, 1940b:287 (Somalia).  As Chlorion xanthocerus maxillaris: Arnold, 1943:78 (Zaire); de Beaumont, 1962b:32 (redescription).  As Chlorion xanthoceros maxillare: Leclercq, 1955h:43 (locality records), 1961b:48 (Zaire).

Chlorion varipenne Reiche and Fairmaire, 1850:451, sex not indicated. Holotype or syntypes: Ethiopia: no specific locality (MNHN?). Synonymized with Sphex xanthocerus by Kohl, 1890:183.  F. Smith, 1856:246 (listed).

Pronaeus instabilis F. Smith, 1856:240, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes), female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) . Syntypes: Guinea, Congo: no specific locality (BMNH). Synonymized with Chlorion ciliatum by van der Vecht, 1961a:36.  Synonymized with Sphex xanthocerus by Kohl, 1890:183.  Magretti, 1884b:580 (Sudan: Bahr el Salaam).  As Sphex xanthocerus var. instabilis: Schouteden, 1930:95 (Zaire); Berland, 1956:1164 (in revision of African Sphecini).  As Chlorion xanthocerum var. instablis: Arnold, 1928c:349 (original description copied).  As Chlorion xanthoceros instabile: Leclercq, 1955h:44 (locality records), 1961b:48 (Zaire).

Pronaeus affinis F. Smith, 1856:240, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) , female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) . Syntypes: South Africa: Natal: Port Natal (BMNH). Synonymized with Sphex xanthocerus by Kohl, 1890:183.

Chlorion fulvipes Gerstaecker in Peters, 1858:510, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) . Holotype or syntypes: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) , Mozambique: no specific locality (ZMHU). Synonymized with Sphex xanthocerus by Kohl, 1890:183.  Taschenberg, 1880:776 (description of female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes)).

Chlorion subcyaneum Gerstaecker in Peters, 1858:511, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Holotype or syntypes: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Mozambique: no specific locality (ZMHU). Synonymized with Sphex xanthocerus by Kohl, 1890:183.  As Sphex xanthoceros var. subcyaneus: Strand, 1916b:102 (Tanzania: Bagamoyo, as subcyanbeum); Berland, 1952b:275 (boundary of Ivory Coast, Guinea, and Liberia: Mt. Nimba), 1956:1164 (in revision of African Sphecini).  As Chlorion xanthocerum var. subcyaneum: Arnold, 1928c:348 (revision).  As Chlorion xanthoocerum subcyaneum: Arnold, 1943:78 (Zaire).  As Sphex subcyaneus: Schouteden, 1930:95 (Zaire).

Chlorion fulvipes Gerstaecker, 1862:482, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Objective synonym of Chlorion fulvipes Gerstaecker, 1858.

Chlorion subcyaneum Gerstaecker, 1862:482. Objective synonym of Chlorion subcyaneum Gerstaecker, 1858.

Chlorion zonatum de Saussure, 1867:36, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) . Holotype or syntypes: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) , Guinea: no specific locality (NHMW). Synonymized with Sphex xanthocerus by Kohl, 1890:183 (or an earlier author?).  As Chlorion xanthocerum var. zonatum: Arnold, 1928c:349 (revision).   As Sphex zonatus: Schouteden, 1930:95 (Zaire).  As Sphex xanthocerus var. zonatus: Berland, 1956:1165 (in revision of African Sphecini).

Sphex mandibularis  var. unicolor de Saussure, 1867:37, sex not indicated. Holotype or syntypes: Mozambique (NHMW). Synonymized with Sphex xanthocerus by Kohl, 1890:183. – As Chlorion xanthocerum var. unicolor: Arnold, 1928c:348 (revision).  As Chlorion xanthocerum unicolor: Arnold, 1943:78 (Zaire).  As Sphex unicolor: Schouteden, 1930:95 (Zaire).  As Chlorion xanthoceros unicolor: Leclercq, 1955h:42 (locality records).

? Sphex cyanescens  Radoszkowski, 1881:209, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Holotype or syntypes: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes), Angola: Humbe (Kraków).  As questionabale synonym of Chlorion maxillosum ciliatum: R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:90 (listed).

Chlorion columbianum  Gribodo, 1883a:262, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Lectotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Colombia: Caracas (Genova), designated by Menke in  Bohart and Menke, 1976:90. Synonymized with Chlorion maxillosum ciliatum by Menke in Bohart and Menke, 1976:90.

Sphex massaicus Cameron, 1908a:262, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: Kenya: Mount Meru: Ngare na nyuki (NRS). Synonymized with Chlorion xanthocerum by R. Turner, 1913:746 and with Sphex xantocerum by Berland, 1926b:164.

Sphex levilabris Cameron, 1910:137, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) . Holotype or syntypes: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , South Africa: Transvaal: Kranspoort (TMP). Synonymized with Chlorion xanthocerum var. maxillaris by Arnold, 1928c:348.

Sphex xanthoceros  var. kigonseranus Strand, 1916:102, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) (as kigonserana,, incorrect original termination). Syntypes: German East Africa: Kigonsera (DEI). Synonymized with Chlorion maxillosum ciliatum  by Menke in  Bohart and Menke, 1976:90. - Berland, 1956:1163 (in revision of African Sphecini, as kingiserana);. - As Chlorion xanthoceros kigonseranum:: Leclercq, 1953b:211 (first record from Madagascar), Leclercq, 1955h:42 (locality records), 1961b:49 (Rwanda).

 

CROSSOCERUS

 

(Pericrabro is excluded)

 

Crossocerus Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau and Brullé, 1835:763. Type species: Crabro scutatus Fabricius, 1787 [= Sphex palmipes Linnaeus, 1767], designated by Westwood, 1839:80.

Blepharipus Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau and Brullé, 1835:728. Type species: Blepharipus nigritus Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau and Brullé, 1835, designated by Ashmead, 1899d:215. Westwood's (1939:80) designataion of Crabro dimidiatus Fabricius, 1781, as type species of Blepharipus is invalid since this species was only questionably included in the taxon by Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau and Brullé (1835:731).

Cuphopterus A. Morawitz, 1866:252. Type species: Crabro subulatus Dahlbom, 1845, by monotypy, = Blepharipus of authors accepting Westwood's type species designation.

Coelocrabro Thomson, 1874:262. Type species: Crabro pubescens Shuckard, 1837 [= Blepharipus nigritus Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau and Brullé, 1835], designated by Richards, 1935a:166.

Hoplocrabro Thomson, 1874:262. Type species: Crabro quadrimaculatus Fabricius, , 1793, by monotypy.

Microcrabro de Saussure, 1892:574. Type species: Crabro micromegas de Saussure, 1892, by monotypy.

Dolichocrabro Ashmead, 1899d:216. Type species: Dolichocrabro wickhami Ashmead, 1899, by original designation.

Epicrossocerus Ashmead, 1899d:215. Type species: Crabro insolens W. Fox, 1895, by original designation.

Stenocrabro Ashmead, 1899d:216. Type species: Crabro planipes W. Fox, 1895, by original designation.

Synorhopalum Ashmead, 1899d:218. Type species: Crabro decorus W. Fox, 1895, by original designation.

Ischnolynthus Holmberg, 1903:472. Type species: Ischnolynthus foveolatus Holmberg, 1903 [= Crabro elongatulus Vander Linden, 1892], by monotypy.

Ablepharipus Perkins, 1913b:390. Type species: Ablepharipus podagricus (Vander Linden, 1829) [= Crabro podagricus Vander Linden, 1829, by monotypy.

Acanthocrabro Perkins, 1913b:391. Type species: Acanthocrabro vagabundus (Panzer, 1798) [= Crabro vagabundus Panzer , 1798], by monotypy, = Blepharipus of Leclercq, 1954.

Apocrabro Pate, 1944a:282. Type species: Crossocerus aeta Pate, 1944, by original designation.

Nothocrabro Pate, 1944a:314. Type species: Crabro nitidiventris W. Fox, 1895, by original designation.

Stictoptila Pate, 1944a:315. Type species: Crabro confertus W. Fox, 1895 [= Crabro maculipennis F. Smith, 1856], by original designation.

Yuchiba Pate, 1944a:272. Type species: Crossocerus xanthochilos Pate, 1944, by original designation.

Ainocrabro Tsuneki, 1954b:74. Type species: Crossocerus aino (Tsuneki, 1947) [= Crabro aino Tsuneki, 19947], by original designation.

Oxycrabro Leclercq, 1961h:74. Type species: Crabro acanthophorus Kohl, 1892, by original designation.

Paroxycrabro Leclercq, 1963:2. Type species: Crossocerus sotirus Leclercq, 1963, by original designation and monotypy.

Alicrabro Tsuneki, 1968g:7. Type species: Crossocerus rufiventris Tsuneki, 1968, by original designation and monotypy.

Apoides Tsuneki, 1968g: 5. Type species: Crossocerus alticola Tsuneki, 1968, by original designation and monotypy.

Neoblepharipus Leclercq, 1968c:98. Type species: Crossocerus potosusLeclercq, 1968, by original designation.

Towada Tsuneki, 1970f:1. Type species: Crossocerus leclercqi Tsuneki, 1959 [= Crabro flavitarsus Tsuneki, 1947], by original designation and monotypy.

Bnunius Tsuneki, 1971a:15. Type species: Crossocerus domicola Tsuneki, 1971, by original designation.

Fentis Tsuneki, 1971a:13. Type species: Crossocerus quinquedentatus Tsuneki, 1971, by original designation and monotypy.

Ornicrabro Leclercq, 1973c:291. Type species: Crossocerus flavissimus Leclercq, 1973, by original designation and monotypy.

Corenocrabro Tsuneki, 1974a:374. Type species: Corenocrabro ectemiformis Tsuneki, 1974, by original designation and monotypy. Synonymized with Crossocerus by Marshakov, 1979a:96 and by Nemkov in Nemkov, Kazenas, Budrys, and Antropov, 1995:428 (as new synonym).

Thao Tsuneki, 1982e:33, as subgenus of Crossocerus. Type species: Crossocerus nitidicorpus Tsuneki, 1968, by original designation and monotypy.

Orthocrabro Tsuneki, 1990a:87, as subgenus of Crossocerus. Type species: Crossocerus hirashimai Tsuneki, 1966, by original designation and monotypy.

Yambal Tsuneki, 1990a:90, as subgenus of Crossocerus. Type species: Crossocerus minor Tsuneki, 1990, by original designation and monotypy.

Corenocrabro Tsuneki, 1991:202, junior homonym of Corenocrabro Tsuneki, 1974. Not available: nomen nudum and type not designated (Article 13b).

brunniventris bekiliensis (Arnold)

Crabro brunniventris race bekiliensis Arnold, 1945:180, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Bekily (MNHN).  Leclercq, 1954c:221 (listed), 304 (nest and prey records); 1958a:14, footnote (diagnostic characters), 17 (Madagascar: Bekily, Ivondro).  As Crossocerus brunniventris bekiliensis: R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:400 (new status, listed).

hirtitibia (Arnold)

Crabro hirtitibia Arnold, 1945:179, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Bekily (MNHN).  As Crossocerus hirtitibia: Leclercq, 1954c:236 (new combination, listed), 1958a:13 (in key), 25 (Madagascar: Bekily); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:401 (listed); Rodgers and Homewood, 1982:233 (Tanzania: Usambara Mountains).

micromegas (de Saussure)

Crabro micromegas de Saussure, 1892:575, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) . Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: Anatananarivo (MHNG). – Dalla Torre, 1897:610 (in catalog of world Sphecidae).  As Microcrabro micromegas: Arnold, 1945:185 (Madagascar).  As Crossocerus micromegas: Leclercq, 1954c:221 (new combination, listed); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:402 (listed).

 

DASYPROCTUS

 

Dasyproctus Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau and Brullé, 1835:801. Type species: Dasyproctus bipunctatus Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau and Brullé, 1835, by monotypy.

Megapodium Dahlbom, 1844:295. Type species: Megapodium westermanni Dahlbom, 1844, , designated by Pate, 1937c:37.

Megalopodium W. Schulz, 1906:202. Emendation of Megapodium Dahlbom, 1844.

Bishamon Tsuneki, 1983h:17, as subgenus of Dasyproctus. Type species: Dasyproctus guadalensis Tsuneki, 1983, by original designation and monotypy.

crudelis (de Saussure)

Crabro crudelis de Saussure, 1892:579, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) . Syntypes: Madagascar: Antananarivo area (MHNG).  Arnold, 1945:170 (Madagascar; revision).  As Dasyproctus crudelis: Leclercq, 1954c:261 (new combination, listed), 1958a:50 (in key), 75 (listed); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:420 (listed); Leclercq, 1990a:233, 234, and 242 (in key), 250 (bibliographic references, shape of frontal carina), 1991d:19 (summary of collecting localities).

ferox (de Saussure)

Crabro ferox de Saussure, 1892:580, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) . Syntypes: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , Madagascar: Antananarivo area, Anosibé in Bezanozano Province (MHNG).  Arnold, 1945:171 (Madagascar; revision).   As Dasyproctus ferox: Leclercq, 1954c:258 (new combination, listed), 1958a:39 (in key), 63 (additional description), 1961b:87 (additional Madagascan records), 1961d:117 (Madagascar); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:420 (listed); Leclercq, 1990a:225 and 237 (in key), 250 (bibliographic references), 1991d:19 (summary of collecting localities); Madl, 1997:821 (Madagascar: Nosy Boraha Island), 822 (in checklist of Nosy Boraha Sphecidae).

Crabro immanis de Saussure, 1892:581, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes), Madagascar: Anosibé in Bezanozano Province (MHNG). Synonymized with Crabro ferox by Arnold, 1945:171.  Dalla Torre, 1897:604 (in catalog of world Sphecidae).

lambertoni Leclercq

Dasyproctus lambertoni Leclercq, 1958a:63, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: Fanovana District: Madag (USNM).  Leclercq, 1958a:38 (in key), 63, 1961d:117 (Madagascar); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:421 (listed); Leclercq, 1990a:224 and 236 (in key, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) ), 252 (bibliographic reference; Madagascar: Angavoleky), 1991d:24 (summary of collecting localities).

saevus (de Saussure)

Crabro saevus de Saussure, 1892:579, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) . Holotype or syntypes: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) , Madagascar: Antananarivo area (MHNG).  Dalla Torre, 1897:624 (in catalog of world Sphecidae); Arnold, 1945:172 (Madagascar; redescription).  As Dasyproctus saevus: Leclercq, 1954c:261 (new combination, listed), 1958a:54 (in key), 86 (diagnostic characters); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:421 (listed); Leclercq, 1990a:233, 234, 238, and 239 (in key), 252 (bibliographic references), 1991d:28 (relation to medicus, summary of collecting localities).

Thyreopus stevensoni Arnold, 1926:369, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) (as Stevensoni, incorrect original capitalization), primary homonym of Thyreopus stevensoni Arnold, 1926:344. Syntypes: Zimbabwe: Bulawayo (SAM). Synonymized with Dasyproctus saevus by Leclercq, 1990a:253.   As Crabro stevensoni: Arnold, 1940:135 (new combination, preoccupied).  As Dasyproctus stevensoni: Schouteden, 1930:94 (new combination, Zaire); Leclercq, 1954c:260 (listed), 1958a:51 (in key), 88 (diagnostic characters), 1961b:82 (Zaire: Garamba National Park); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:421 (listed).

Crabro stevensonianus Arnold, 1940:135 (as Stevensonianus, incorrect original capitalization). Replacement name for Thyreopus stevensoni Arnold, 1926:369.  As Dasyproctus stevensonianus: R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:421 (as synonym of Dasyproctus stevensoni); Dollfuss, 1990a:122 (Central African Republic, as stephensonianus).

Crabro stevensonianus occidentalis Arnold, 1951:164, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Holotype: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes), Ghana: Aburi (BMNH). Synonymized with Dasyproctus stevensoni by Leclercq, 1954c:259.

saussurei (Kohl)

Crabro saussurei Kohl, 1894:282, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) (as Saussurei, incorrect original capitalization). Holotype or syntypes: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes), Madagascar: no specific locality (NHMW).  Dalla Torre, 1897:624 (in catalog of world Sphecidae); W. Schulz, 1911:185 (as new synonym of Crabro crudelis); Arnold, 1945:174 (synonymy with Crabro crudelis invalid).  As Dasyproctus saussurei: Leclercq, 1954c:261 (new combination, listed), 1958a:50 (in key), 75 (listed; female head longer than in other Dasyproctus), 1961b:87 (Madagascar: Mailaka); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:421 (listed); Dollfuss, 1989:9 (holotype in NHMW); Leclercq, 1990a:234 and 242 (in key), 254 (bibliographic references), 1991d:31 (relations to crudelis, summary of collecting localities).

Crabro infrarugosus Arnold, 1945:173, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Rogez (MNHN). Synonymized with Dasyproctus saussurei by Leclercq, 1958a:75.  As Dasyproctus infrarugosus: Leclercq, 1954c:261 (new combination, listed).

 

DAYCATINCA

 

Daycatinca Argaman, 1985:7. Type species: Heterogyna fantsilotra Day, 1984, by original designation.

Daya Antropov and Gorbatovskiy, 1992:58 (as subgenus of Heterogyna). Type species: Heterogyna madecassa Day, 1984, by original designation.

Key: Argaman, 1985:10

fantsilotra (Day)

Heterogyna fantsilotra Day, 1984:306, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Holotype: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes), Madagascar: Toliara: Bereboka (BMNH).  As Daycatinca fantsilotra: Argaman, 1985:8 (new combination), 10 (in key).

madecassa (Day)

Heterogyna madecassa Day, 1984:305, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Holotype:male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) , Madagascar: Toliara: Bereboka (BMNH).   As Daycatinca madecassa: Argaman, 1985:8 (new combination), 10, 11 (in key)..

ravenala (Day)

Heterogyna ravenala Day, 1984:306, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Holotype: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes), Madagascar: Tamatave: Périnet, now Andasibé (BMNH).  As Daycatinca ravenala: Argaman, 1985:8 (new combination), 10, 11 (in key).

 

DOLICHURUS

 

Dolichurus Latreille, 1809:387. Type species: Pompilus corniculus Spinola, 1808, designated by Latreille, 1810:438.

Thyreosphex Ashmead, 1904:282. Type species: Thyreosphex stantoni Ashmead, 1904, by monotypy.

secundus de Saussure

Dolichurus secundus de Saussure, 1892:450, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Syntypes: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , Madagascar: Antananarivo (MHNG).  Kohl, 1893d:510 (revision); Dalla Torre, 1897:371 (listed); Arnold, 1945:83 (Madagascar; redescription); Leclercq, 1961d:101 (Madagascar); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:69 (listed); Leclercq, 1990b:114 (Madagascar), Madl, 1997:819 (Madagascar: Nosy Boraha Island) 821 (in checklist of Nosy Boraha Sphecidae).

Dolichurus tertius de Saussure, 1892:452, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Holotype or syntypes: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: Anosibé in Bezanozano Province (MHNG). Synonymized with Dolichurus secundus by Arnold, 1945:83.  Kohl, 1893d:512 (revision); Dalla Torre, 1897:371 (listed).

 

ECTEMNIUS

 

Ectemnius Dahlbom, 1845:389. Type species: "E. guttatus, Dahlb." [= Crabro guttatus of Dahlbom, 1845 = Crabro guttatus Vander Linden, 1829], designated by Ashmead, 1899d:172.

Clytochrysus A. Morawitz, 1864:453. Type species: Crabro chrysostomus Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau and Brullé, 1835 [= Crabro lapidarius Panzer, 1804], designated by Richards, 1935a:168.

Thyreocerus A. Costa, 1871:65. Type species: Crabro crassicornis Spinola, 1808, by monotypy.

Mesocrabro C. Verhoeff, 1892:70. Type species: Crabro guttatus Vander Linden, 1829, designated by Pate, 1937c:38.

Hypocrabro Ashmead, 1899d:168. Type species: Crabro decemmaculatus Say, 1823, by original designation.

Nesocrabro R. Perkins, 1899:25. Type species: Crabro rubrocaudatus Blackburn, 1887, designated by Pate, 1937c:42.

Pseudocrabro Ashmead, 1899d:169. Type species: Crabro chrysarginus of Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, 1845 [= Crabro chrysargyrus Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau and Brullé, 1835 = Crabro decemmaculatus Say, 1823], by original designation.

Xestocrabro Ashmead, 1899d:169. Type species: Crabro sexmaculatus Say, 1823 [= Crabro continuus Fabricius, 1804], by original designation.

Xylocrabro Ashmead, 1899d:169. Type species: Crabro stirpicola Packard, 1866, by original designation.

Metacrabro Ashmead, 1899d:169. Type species: Crabro kollari Dahlbom, 1845 [= Crabro lituratus Panzer, 1804, by original designation.

Protothyreopus Ashmead, 1899d:170. Type species: Crabro rufifemur Packard, 1866, by original designation.

Oreocrabro R. Perkins, 1902:146. Type species: Crabro abnormis Blackkburn, 1886, by original designation.

Hylocrabro R. Perkins, 1902:147. Type species: Crabro tumidoventris R. Perkins, 1899, by original designation.

Melanocrabro R. Perkins, 1902:147. Type species: Crabro curtipes R. Perkins, 1899, by original designation.

Xenocrabro R. Perkins, 1902:148. Type species: Crabro unicolor F. Smith, 1856, by original designation.

Lophocrabro Rohwer, 1916b:667. Type species: Crabro singularis F. Smith, 1856 [= Vespa maculosa Gmelin, 1790], by original designation.

Merospis Pate, 1941c:121. Type species: Ectemnius cyanauges Pate, 1941, by original designation and monotypy.

Cameronitus Leclercq, 1950b:14. Type species: Ectemnius menyllus (Cameron,1905) [= Crabro menyllus Cameron, 1905, by original designation and monotypy.

Protectemnius Leclercq, 1951j:105. Type species: Crabro tabanicida Fischer, 1929, by original designation and monotypy.

Yanonius Tsuneki, 1956e:129. Type species: Crabro martjanowi F. Morawitz, 1892, by original designation and monotypy.

Policrabro Leclercq, 1958c:106. Type species: Crossocerus krusemani Leclercq, 1950, by original designation.

Iwataia Tsuneki, 1959e:8. Type species: Crabro furuichii Iwata, 1934, by original designation and monotypy.

Leocrabro Leclercq, 1968e:300. Type species: Ectemnius leonesus Leclercq, 1968, by original designation and monotypy. Synonymized with Protectemnius Leclercq, 1951:105 by Leclercq, 1991b:26.

Ceratocrabro Tsuneki, 1970f:1. Type species: Ectemnius shimoyamai Tsuneki, 1958, by original designation and monotypy.

Papuacrabro Tsuneki, 1983h:22, as subgenus of Ectemnius. Type species: Ectemnius papuanus Tsuneki, 1983, by original designation and monotypy.

Metactemnius Tsuneki, 1984b:34, as subgenus of Ectemnius. Type species: Ectemnius apo Tsuneki, 1984, by original designation and monotypy.

Spadicocrabro Tsuneki, 1990b:100. Type species: Crabro nitobei Matsumura, 1912, by original designation and monotypy. Established as genus, treated as a subgenus of Ectemnius by Leclercq, 1999:9.

praeclarus (Arnold)

Crabro praeclarus Arnold, 1945:181, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Ivondro (MNHN).  As Ectemnius praeclarus: Leclercq, 1954c:269 (new combination, listed); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:427 (listed); Leclercq, 1999:12 (in key to subgenera and species groups of Ectemnius).

Dasyproctus sakalavus Leclercq, 1967b:68, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: Aninoravo (MNHN). Synonymized with Ectemnius praeclarus by Leclercq, 1989c:51.  R. Bohart Menke, 1976:421 (listed).

seyrigi (Arnold)

Crabro seyrigi Arnold, 1945:183,female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) (as Seyrigi, incorrect original capitalization). Syntypes: Madagascar: Ivondro (MNHN).  Arnold, 1958:137 (belongs to subgenus Metacrabro in Leclercq's system).  As Ectemnius seyrigi: Leclercq, 1954c:269 (new combination, listed), 1961d:118 (belongs to subgenus Iwataia; Madagascar); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:428 (listed); Leclercq, 1989c:52 (variation).

slateri nigrescens (Arnold)

Crabro slateri nigrescens Arnold, 1945:183, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) . Syntypes: Madagascar: Bekily (MNHN).  As Ectemnius slateri nigrescens: R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:428 (listed).

 

ENTOMOGNATHUS

 

Entomognathus Dahlbom, 1844:295. Type species: Crabro revis Vander Linden, 1829, by monotypy.

Koxinga Pate, 1944b:341. Type species: Entomognathus siraiyae Pate, 1944, by original designation and monotypy.

Mashona Pate, 1944b:341. Type species: Thyreopus apiformis Arnold, 1926, by original designation and monotypy.

Toncahua Pate, 1944b:341. Type species: Entomognathus texanus Cresson, 1887, by original designation and monotypy.

Florkinus Leclercq, 1956b:2. Type species: Florkinus evolutionis Leclercq, 1956, by original designation and monotypy.

Bihargnathus Leclercq, 1977a:452, as subgenus of Entomognathus. Type species: Encopognathus itinerus Leclercq, 1977, by original designation.

arnoldi Bohart and Menke

Crabro tridens Arnold, 1945:165, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) . Syntypes: Madagascar: Bekily (MNHN). Primary homonym of Crabro tridens Fabricius, 1798, a junior synonym of Oxybelus uniglumis (Linnaeus, 1758).  As Entomognathus tridens: Leclercq, 1954c:202 (new combination, listed), 1961b:72 (Madagascar; description of male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) ), 1997b:115 (in key), 120 (bibliographic references, faunal records, tentatively assigned to subgenusMashona).

Entomognathus arnoldi Bohart and Menke, 1976:382. Replacement name for Crabro tridens Arnold.

diversicornis (Arnold)

Crabro diversicornis Arnold, 1945:168, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes), female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Bekily (MNHN).  As Entomognathus diversicornis: Leclercq, 1954c:202 (new combination, listed); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:382 (listed); Leclercq, 1997b:118 (in key), 121 (bibliographic references, correction to original description).

faunus (Arnold)

Crabro faunus Arnold, 1945:166, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Bekily (MNHN).  As Entomognathus faunus: Leclercq, 1954c:202 (new combination, listed); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:382 (listed), 1997b:115 (in key).

midas (Arnold)

Crabro midas Arnold, 1945:161, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) . Syntypes: Madagascar: Behara (MNHN).  As Entomognathus midas: Leclercq, 1954c:203 (new combination, new combination, listed); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:382 (listed; as midus); Leclercq, 1997b:116 (in key); Leclercq, 1997b:116 (in key), 124 (bibliographic references).

mimicus (Arnold)

Crabro mimicus Arnold, 1945:163, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Bekily (MNHN).  As Entomognathus mimicus: Leclercq, 1954c:203 (new combination, listed), 303 (nest and prey records); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:382 (listed); Leclercq, 1997b:116 (in key), 124 (bibliographic references).

ruficaudatus (Arnold)

Crabro ruficaudatus Arnold, 1945:164, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Ivondro, Rogez (MNHN).  As Entomognathus ruficaudatus: Leclercq, 1954c:202 (new combination, listed), 1961b:71 (Madagascar); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:382 (listed); Leclercq, 1997b:115, 119 (in key), 128 (bibliographic references, tentatively assigned to subgenus Mashona).

 

GASTROSERICUS

 

Gastrosericus Spinola, 1839:480. Type species: Gastrosericus waltlii Spinola, 1839, by monotypy.  As Gasterosericus (unjustified emendation or misspelling): Dahlbom, 1845:467; Brauns, 1906:49, 51, 52.

Eparmatostethus Kohl, 1907:167. Type species: Eparmatostethus madecassus Kohl, 1907, by monotypy. Synonymized with Gastrosericus by Arnold, 1927:116. As Eparmostethus (misspelling): Pate, 1937:26, Bohart and Menke, 1976:43.

Paralellopsis Maidl, 1914b:147. Type species: Paralellopsis africana Maidl, 1914 [= Gastrosericus neavei Turner, 1913], by original designation and monotypy. Synonymized with Gastrosericus by Arnold, 1922:114.  As Parallelopsis (misspelling): Turner, 1916:258; Pate, 1937:47.

Dinetomorpha Gussakovskij, 1931:451. Not available: type species not designated (Article 13b).

Gastrargyron Gussakovskij, 1931:451. Not available: type species not designated (Article 13b).

Dinetomorpha Pate, 1937:22, Article 13a (ii) (as Dinetomorpha Gussakovskij, 1931, a subgenus of Gastrosericus). Type species: Gastrosericus flavicornis Gussakovskij, 1931 [= Gastrosericus electus Nurse, 1903], designated by Pate, 1937:22. Validation of Gussaskovskij's (1931:451) name. Synonymized with Gastrosericus by Bohart and Menke, 1976:43.

Gastrargyron Pate, 1937:28, Article 13a (ii) (as Gastrargyron Gussakovskij, 1931, a subgenus of Gastrosericus). Type species: Gastrosericus marginalis Gussakovskij, 1931, designated by Pate, 1937:22. Validation of Gussaskovskij's (1931:451) name. Synonymized with Gastrosericus by Bohart and Menke, 1976:43.

madecassus (Kohl)

Eparmatostethus madecassus Kohl, 1907:169, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: Taolanaro (ZIN), examined.  Pate, 1937:26 (misspelled as Eparmostethus).  In Gastrosericus: Arnold, 1927:116 (Eparmatostethus synonymized with Gastrosericus), 1945:92 (ó); Leclercq, 1960:96 (Madagascar: Behara); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:256 (listed); Leclercq, 1990:115 (Madagascar: Bekily); Pulawski, 1995b:85 (revision).

zoyphion Pulawski

Gastrosericus zoyphion Pulawski, 1995b:169, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: 5 km N Toliara (CAS).

 

HARPACTUS

 

Arpactus Jurine, 1807:192, junior homonym of Arpactus Panzer, 1805, and of Arpactus Panzer, 1806. Type species: Arpactus formosus Jurine, 1807, designated by Shuckard, 1837:220.

Harpactus Shuckard, 1837:221. Emendation of Arpactus Jurine, 107. As noted by Pulawski (1985:59), Shuckard emended Arpactus on linguistic grounds, thus creating an available new name, with its own date and author (Articles 19 and 33.2). Since Harpactus is an emendation, it has the same type-species as Arpactus Jurine (Article 67.8).

Harpactes Dahlbom, 1843:147, junior homonym of Harpactes Swainson, 1837 (Aves), and of Harpactes Templeton, 1834 (Arachnida). Emendation of Harpactus Shuckard.

Dienoplus W. Fox, 1894a:548. Type species: Dienoplus pictifrons W. Fox, 1894, by monotypy.

histrio (de Saussure)

Harpactes histrio de Saussure, 1892:530, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Syntypes: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , Madagascar: Bezanozano: Anosibé (MHNG). As Gorytes histrio: Handlirsch, 1895:907 (new combination, redescription); Dalla Torre, 1897:542 (listed); Arnold, 1945:57 (Madagascar; redescription); Leclercq, 1960a:100 (Madagascar). As Dienoplus histrio: R. Bohart in Bohart and Menke, 1976:496 (new combination, listed); Leclercq, 1990b:119 (Madagascar; variation).

 

HOLOTACHYSPHEX

 

Holotachysphex de Beaumont, 1940:179. Type species: Tachysphex holognathus Morice, 1897, by monotypy.

Phytosphex Arnold, 1951:153. Type species: Tachysphex turneri Arnold, 1923, by original designation.

Haplognatha Gussakovskij, 1952:248. Type species: Haplognatha prosopigastroides Gussakovskij, 1952, by original designation and monotypy.

sacalava (Arnold)

Tachysphex turneri sacalava Arnold, 1945:106, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: no specific locality (MNHN).  As Holotachysphex sacalava: Menke in Bohart and Menke, 1976:282 (new combination, new status, listed); Pulawski, 1992a:234 (revision).

 

HOPLISOIDES

 

Hoplisoides Gribodo, 1884d:276. Type species: Hoplisoides intricans Gribodo, 1884, by monotypy.

Icuma Cameron, 1905b:21. Type species: Icuma sericea Cameron, 1905, by monotypy [= Gorytes vespoides F. Smith, 1873]. Synonymized with Hoplisoides by R. Bohart in Bohart and Menke, 1976:53

bipustulatus (Arnold)

Gorytes bipustulatus Arnold, 1945:55, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Behara, Bekily (MNHN).  Leclercq, 1960a:100 (Madagascar).   As Hoplisoides bipustulatus: R. Bohart in Bohart and Menke, 1976:520 (new combination, listed); Leclercq, 1990b:119 (Madagascar; prey: Tettigometridae).

 

HOVANYSSON

 

Hovanysson Arnold, 1945:52. Type species: Brachystegus camelus Arnold, by original designation.

albibarbis (Arnold)

Nysson albibarbis Arnold, 1945:51, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Antananarivo, Bekily (MNHN).  As Hovanysson albibarbis: R. Bohart in Bohart and Menke, 1976:472 (new combination, listed).

camelus (Arnold)

Brachystegus camelus Arnold, 1945:53, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Behara, Bekily, Fort Dauphin, Ivondro (MNHN).  Leclercq, 1961d:102 (Madagascar).  As Hovanysson camelus: R. Bohart in Bohart and Menke, 1976:472 (new combination, listed); Leclercq, 1990b:119 (Madagascar); Hancock, Chahwanda, and Mhlanga, 1995:37 (syntype in Bulawayo Museum).

 

ISODONTIA

 

Isodontia Patton, 1880a:380. Type species: Isodontia philadelphica (Lepeletier, 1845) [= Sphex philadelphicus Lepeletier, 1845], by original designation.

Leontosphex Arnold, 1945:90. Type species: Sphex leoninus de Saussure, 1890, by original designation.

Murrayella R. Bohart and Menke, 1963:137. Type species: Sphex elegans F. Smith, 1856, by original designation.

leonina (de Saussure)

Sphex leoninus de Saussure, 1890: pl. 19, fig. 6, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Holotype: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes), illustrated specimen, Madagascar: no specific locality (MHNG).  Kohl, 1895:50 (revision); Berland, 1926c:282 (Madagascar: locality records); Leclercq, 1953b:211 (Madagascar).  As Isodontia leonina: Menke in Bohart and Menke, 1976:123 (new combination, listed).

Sphex leoninus de Saussure, 1891:259, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Objective synonym of Sphex leoninus de Saussure, 1890.  Leclercq, 1961d:108 (Madagascar).   As Chlorion leoninum: Arnold, 1945:90 (Madagascar; redescription).

Sphex leoninus de Saussure, 1892:431, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) (as leonina, incorrect original termination). Objective synonym of Sphex leoninus de Saussure, 1890.

 

LARRA

 

Larra Fabricius, 1793:220. Type species: Larra ichneumoniformis Fabricius, 1793 [= Sphex anathema Rossi, 1790], designated by Latreille, 1810:438.

Larrana Rafinesque, 1815:124. Emendation or new name for Larra Fabricius, 1793.

Lara Drapiez, 1819:54. Lapsus or emendation of Larra Fabricius, 1793. [Lara LeConte, 1852, is a junior homonym]

Monomatium Shuckard, 1840:181, no included species. Type species: Larraxena princeps F. Smith, 1851, designated by Pate, 1935:246 (first included species).

Lyrops Dahlbom, 1843:132, junior homonym of Lyrops Illiger, 1807. Type species: Tachytes paganus Dahlbom, 1843, by monotypy.

Larraxena F. Smith, 1851:30. Type species: Larraxena princeps F. Smith, 1851, by monotypy.

Larrada F. Smith, 1856:273. Type species: Larrada anathema (Rossi, 1790) [= Sphex anathema Rossi, 1790], by original designation.

Cratolarra Cameron, 1900a:34. Type species: Cratolarra femorata Cameron, 1900, secondary homonym of Larra femorata (de Saussure, 1854), by monotypy. Treated as subgenus of Larra by Menke in Bohart and Menke, 1976:42.

betsilea de Saussure

Larra betsilea de Saussure, 1887:17, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) (as Betsilea, incorrect original capitalization). Holotype or syntypes: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , Madagascar: no specific locality (MHNG or MNHN).  de Saussure, 1892:488 (Madagascar, redescription, description of male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) ); Arnold, 1945:114 (Madagascar; redescription); Leclercq, 1960a:96 (Madagascar), 1961d:121 (Madagascar); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:237 (listed); Leclercq, 1990b:115 (in key), 116 (Madagascar).

heydenii (de Saussure)

Notogonia heydenii de Saussure, 1890:pl.12, fig. 18, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) (as Heydenii, incorrect original capitalization). Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , illustrated specimen, Madagascar: no specific locality (MHNG).  Arnold, 1945:115 (Madagascar; redescription); Leclercq, 1960a:96 (Madagascar); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:238 (listed); Leclercq, 1990b:115 (in key), 116 (Madagascar).

Notogonia heidenii de Saussure, 1891:261(as Heydenii, incorrect original capitalization). Objective synonym of Larra heydenii de Saussure, 1890.

Larra heydenii de Saussure, 1892:494, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes), Syntypes: Madagascar: Anosibé in Bezanozano Province and Imerina Province (MHNG). Objective synonym of Larra heydenii de Saussure, 1890.

madecassa de Saussure

Larra madecassa de Saussure, 1887:17, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Holotype or syntypes: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes), Madagascar: no specific locality (MHNG or MNHN).  de Saussure, 1892:496 (Madagascar, redescription); Arnold, 1945:116 (Madagascar; redescription); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:238 (listed); Leclercq, 1990b:115 (in key), 116 (Madagascar).

saussurei Kohl

Larra prismatica de Saussure, 1887:17, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , primary homonym of Larra prismatica F. Smith, 1857 (now in Bembecinus). Holotype or syntypes: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: no specific locality (MNHN). – Arnold, 1945:114 (Madagascar; redescription); Leclercq, 1960a:97 (Madagascar), 1961d:112 (Madagascar).

Larra saussurei Kohl, 1892:219, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) (as Saussurei, incorrect original capitalization). Syntypes: Madagascar: no specific locality (NHMW). Synonymized with Larra prismatica de Saussure by W. Schulz, 1911:190. – R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:238 (listed); Dollfuss, 1989:10 (type material in NHMW); Leclercq, 1990b:115 (in key), 117 (Madagascar).

variipes de Saussure

Larra carbonaria de Saussure, 1892:491, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), secondary homonym of Larra carbonaria (F. Smith, 1858). Holotype or syntypes: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: Bezanozano: Anosibé (MHNG).

Larra variipes de Saussure, 1892:493, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) . Syntypes: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes), Madagascar: Andrangoloaka and Bezanozano: Anosibé (MHNG). – W. Schulz, 1911:190 (as new synonym of Larra prismatica de Saussure); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:238 (listed); Leclercq, 1990b:115 (in key), 117 (Madagascar); Madl, 1997:820 (Madagascar: Nosy Boraha Island), 821 (in checklist of Nosy Boraha Sphecidae).

Larra carbunculus Dalla Torre, 1897. Replacement name for Larra carbonaria de Saussure, 1892. – Arnold, 1945:116 (Madagascar; redescription, as valid species); Leclercq, 1960a:96 (Madagascar), 1961d:112 (Madagascar).

 

LIRIS

 

Liris Fabricius, 1804:227. Type species: Sphex auratus Fabricius, 1787, designated by Patton, 1880b:386.

Lirisis Rafinesque, 1815:124. Emendation or replacement name for Liris Fabricius, 1804.

Notogonia A. Costa, 1867b:82, junior homonym of Notogonia Perty, 1850 (Crustacea). Type species: Tachytes niger of Vander Linden, 1829 [= Larra nigra of Latreille, 1805 = Pompilus niger of Panzer, 1799 = Sphex niger Fabricius, 1775], by monotypy.

Motes Kohl, 1897a:351. Type species: "Notogonia odontophora Kohl, 1892" [= Larra odontophora Kohl, 1894], designated by Pate, 1837c:41.

Caenolarra Cameron, 1900a:28. Type species: Caenolarra appendiculata Cameron, 1900 [= Spanolarra rufitarsis Cameron, 1900], secondary homonym of Liris appendiculatus (Taschenberg, 1870) by monotypy.

Leptolarra Cameron, 1900a:29. Type species: Leptolarra reticulata Cameron, 1900, secondary homonym of Liris reticulatus (de Saussure, 1892) [= Leptolara reticuloides Richards, 1935 = Liris nigricans reticuloides (Richards)], designated by Richards, 1935a:164.

Spanolarra Cameron, 1900a:32. Type species: Spanolarra rufitarsis Cameron, 1900, by monotypy.

Notogonius Howard, 1901:pl. 6, fig. 1 (June). Lapsus for Notogonia A. Costa. Bohart and Menke (1976:43) write the following: There are numerous spelling errors in Howard's book, and we regard Notogonius as a lapsus for Notogonia Costa. This wiev was also shared by G.E. Bohart (1951:954) who nevertheless recognized Notogonius nigripennis (W. Fox) as type species, an unnecessary action. The specimen figured by Howard is in the U.S. National Museum and is Liris argentatus (Palisot de Beauvois), not nigripennis.

Chrysolarra Cameron, 1901b:118 (Aug.). Type species: Chrysolarra appendiculata Cameron, 1901, secondary homonym of Liris appendiculatus (Taschenberg, 1870), designated by Pate, 1837c:18.

Notogonidea Rohwer, 1911d:234. Replacement name for Notogonia A. Costa, 1867.

Dociliris Tsuneki, 1967b:26, as subgenus of Liris. Type species: Larrada subtessellata F. Smith, 1856, by original designation. Synonymized with Leptolarra Cameron, 1900, by Menke in Bohart and Menke, 1976:43.

Nigliris Tsuneki, 1967b:27, as subgenus of Liris. Type species: Notogonia japonica Kohl, 1885 [= Liris festinans japonicus (Kohl), by original designation. Synonymized with Leptolarra by Menke in Bohart and Menke, 1976:43.

Colloliris Tsuneki, 1974b:612, as subgenus of Liris. Type species: Notogonidea negrosensis F. Williams, 1928, by original designantion and monotypy. Synonymized with Leptolarra by Menke in Bohart and Menke, 1976:629.

Pitaliris Tsuneki, 1982e:26, as subgenus of Liris. Type species: Cratolarra pitamawa Rohwer, 1916, original designation.

alaris (de Saussure)

Notogonia alaris de Saussure, 1892:503, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Lectotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , Madagascar: Antananarivo or Anosibé in Bezanozano Province (MHNG), designated by Leclercq, 1961d:113 (specific locality not indicated).  As Liris alaris: Arnold, 1945:125 (Madagascar; redescription); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:244 (listed).

antaka (de Saussure)

Notogonia antaka de Saussure, 1890: pl.19, fig. 7, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), illustrated specimen, Madagascar: no specific locality (MHNG). – R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:244 (listed).

Notogonia ancara de Saussure, 1891:260, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) . Objective synonym of Notogonia antaka de Saussure, 1890. Lectotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , Madagascar: no specific locality (MHNG), unnecessary designation by Leclercq, 1961d:113 (as antaca).

Notogonia antaca de Saussure, 1892:505, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Emendation of Notogonia antaka and ancara. – Bischoff, 1913c:73 (Zimbabwe: Bulawayo); von Schulthess in Friederichs, 1918:47 (Madagascar: Diego Suarez); Berland, 1925c:154 (Angola); Arnold, 1929c:394 (as synonym of Notogonidea radialis).  As Motes antaca: Leclercq, 1961d:113 (Madagascar). – As Liris antaca: Arnold, 1945:126 (Madagascar: Behara; redescription).

avellanipes (de Saussure)

Notogonia avellanipes de Saussure, 1890: pl. 19, fig. 8. Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , illustrated specimen female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: no specific locality (MHNG).  As Liris avellanipes: R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:244 (listed).

Notogonia avellanipes de Saussure, 1891:261, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) . Objective synonym of Notogonia avaellanipes de Saussure, 1890. Lectotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , Madagascar: no specific locality (MHNG), unnecessary designation by Leclercq, 1961d:112.  de Saussure, 1892:508 (Madagascar; redescription); Arnold, 1945:122 (Madagascar; redescription).  As Motes avellanipes: Leclercq, 1960a:97 (Madagascar), 1961d:111 (Madagascar).

brunnipennis Arnold

Liris brunnipennis Arnold, 1945:130, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Bekily (MNHN). – R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:244 (listed); Madl, 1997:820 (Madagascar: Nosy Boraha Island), 821 (in checklist of Nosy Boraha Sphecidae).  As Motes brunnipennis: Leclercq, 1960a:97 (Madagascar), 1961d:115 (Madagascar).

cowani (W.F. Kirby)

Larrada cowani W.F. Kirby, 1883:200, sex not indicated (as Cowani, incorrect original capitalization). Syntypes: Madagascar: no specific locality (BMNH). – As Liris cowani: R. Turner, 1916b:249 (new combination); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:245 (listed).

Liris jocositarsa de Saussure, 1887:18, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes), incorrect original termination. Holotype or syntypes: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) , Madagascar: no specific locality (MHNG). Synonymized with Liris cowani  de Saussure, 1892:515 (Madagascar, redescription); Kohl, 1892:226 (E ), 227 (in key).  As Liris haemorrhoidalis race jocositarsa: Arnold, 1945:117 (Madagascar; redescription).  As Liris haemorrhoidalis jocositarsa: Leclercq, 1960a:97 (Madagascar), 1961d:112 (Madagascar); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:245 (listed); Madl, Matyot, and Schödl, 1996:832 (Seychelles Islands)..

Liris pedestris de Saussure, 1892:517, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Antananarivo and Anosibé in Tamatave Province (MHNG). Synonymized with Liris cowani by R. Turner, 1916b:249 and with Liris haemorrhoidalis var. jocositarsa by Arnold, 1945. – de Beaumont, 1961f:222 (valid name for Liris haemorrhoidalis race jocositarsa of Arnold, 1945).

crepitans Leclercq

Liris crepitans Leclercq, 1967b:65, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Holotype: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes), Madagascar: Maevatanatoa (MNHN).  R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:245 (listed).

cubitalis (de Saussure)

Notogonia cubitalis de Saussure, 1887:17, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Holotype or syntypes: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: no specific locality (MHNG or MNHN).  de Saussure, 1892:513 (Madagascar, redescription).  As Liris cubitalis: R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:245 (listed; type locality given as Mauritius).

dejectus Arnold

Liris dejecta Arnold, 1945:129, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes), incorrect original termination. Syntypes: Madagascar: Bekily (MNHN).  R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:245 (listed).  As Motes dejecta: Leclercq, 1960a:97 (Madagascar), 1961d:115 (Madagascar).

dyscheirus (de Saussure)

Notogonia dyscheira de Saussure, 1892:510, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: Imerina Province: no specific locality (MHNG).  As Larra dyscheira: Kohl in Dalla Torre, 1897:666 (listed, as dasycheira).  As Motes dyscheira: Leclercq, 1960a:97 (Madagascar), 1961d:113 (unnecessary designation of lectotype).  As Liris dyscheira: Arnold, 1945:123 (Madagascar, redescription; description of male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes), new combination); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:245 (listed).

ganahlii (Dalla Torre)

Notogonia rufipes de Saussure, 1892:511, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: Antananarivo (MHNG).  As Larra rufipes: Kohl in Dalla Torre, 1987:672 (new combination, listed).  As Motes rufipes: Leclercq, 1961d:116 (Madagascar).  As Liris rufipes: Arnold, 1945:133 (Madagascar).

Larra ganahlii Dalla Torre, 1897:511 (as Ganahlii, incorrect original capitalization). Replacement name for Larra rufipes (de Saussure, 1892), secondary homonym of Larra rufipes (F. Smith, 1858).  As Liris ganahlii: R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:245 (listed).

gracilicornis (Arnold)

Notogonidea gracilicornis Arnold, 1923b:250, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , Zimbabwe: Bulawayo (SAM).  Arnold, 1929c:397 (description of male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) ), 1945:132 (Madagascar).  As Liris gracilicornis: Arnold, 1951:160 (Ghana: Labadi); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:245 (listed); Dollfuss, 1993a:693 (Central African Republic: Kembe).

incertus Arnold

Liris incerta Arnold, 1945:127, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), incorrect original termination. Syntypes: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: Behara, Bekily, Ranomafana, Rogez (MNHN). – R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:246 (listed).  As Motes incerta: Leclercq, 1960a:97 (Madagascar), 1961d:113 (Madagascar; comparison with Liris dejectus).

keiseri (Leclercq)

Motes keiseri Leclercq, 1961d:114. Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , Madagascar: Tamatave Province: Fampanambo (MHNB).  As Liris: R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:246 (listed).

memnonius coloripes Arnold

Motes radialis coloripes Arnold, 1940:123, sex not indicated. Syntypes: Madagascar: no specific locality (SAM).  As Motes setigera coloripes: Leclercq, 1961d:115 (Madagascar).  As Liris setigera coloripes: Arnold, 1945:129 (Madagascar: Behara, redescription); Leclercq, 1961d:115 (Madagascar).  As Liris memnonia coloripes: R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:246 (listed).

minimus (Arnold)

Notogonidea minima Arnold, 1923b:249, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Holotype: sex not indicated, Zimbabwe: Bulawayo or Hopefountain (SAM).  Arnold, 1929c:397 (description of male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) ), 1945:132 (Madagascar).  As Liris minima: R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:246 (listed).

nigricans (Walker)

Larrada nigricans Walker, 1871:21, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: Egypt: Cairo (BMNH).  As Notogonia nigricans: R. Turner, 1917b:319 (new combination; one syntype in BMNH; Egypt, Gibraltar, Cabo Verde Islands); Richards, 1928a:362 (in revision of Mediterranean species); Gussakovskij, 1938:7 (China: Kiangsu Province); Giner Marí, 1947:25 (Western Sahara), 1959:388 (Morocco: Fès; determination?).   As Leptolarra nigricans: Guiglia, 1937:186 (Libya: Cyrenaica; redescription); de Beaumont, 1940a:18 (Egypt).  As Motes nigricans: Guiglia, 1942b:233 (Libya).  As Liris nigricans: de Beaumont, 1947b:390 (Cyprus), 1950d:14 (Egypt: Siwa oasis); de Pittioni, 1950:24 (Cyprus); Beaumont, 1955a:171 (Morocco), 1956a:196 (Libya; Chad: Tibesti), 1956d:2 (Cabo Verde Islands), 1958b:60 (Algeria: Tassili des Ajjer); Suárez in Giner Marí, 1959:400 (Liris nigricans is the correct name for Notogonia nigricans of Giner Marí, 1959:388); de Beaumont, 1960b:237 (Libya), 1961e:4 (Iraq), 1961f:234 (revision), 1967a:330 (Turkey), 1968a:261 (Canary Islands: Gran Canaria); Simon Thomas, 1969a:120 (Canary Islands: Tenerife); de Beaumont, 1970a:400 (Afghanistan); de Beaumont, Bytinski-Salz and Pulawski, 1973:5 (Israel); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:246 (listed); Georghiou, 1977:190 (Cyprus); Báez and Ortega, 1978:192 (Canary Islands); Guichard, 1978:271 (first record from Greece); Kazenas, 1978b:102, 103 (in key to Sphecidae of Kazakhstan and Central Asia); Guichard, 1980:227 (Oman); Islamov, 1986:524 (Uzbekistan: Tashkent Oblast); Gayubo and Mingo, 1988:74 (Spain); Dollfuss, 1993a:693 (Central African Republic: Kembe); Hohmann, La Roche, Ortega, and Barquín, 1993:220 (detailed records from Canary Islands); Simon Thomas and Wiering, 1993:404 (listed); Torregrosa, Gayubo, Tormos, and Asís, 1993:18 (Spain: Alicante Province); Madl, 1997:820 (Madagascar: Nosy Boraha Island), 821 (in checklist of Nosy Boraha Sphecidae).

Notogonia argyropyga A. Costa, 1875:16, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) (nec male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) which = ?). Holotype (or syntypes): Egypt (Napoli).  Richards, 1928a:361 (as synonym of Notogonia memnonia); de Beaumont, 1961f:235 (study of type).

Notogonia sculpturata Kohl, 1892:221, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Holotype: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes), Egypt: no specific locality (NHMW). Synonymized with Notogonia nigricans by R. Turner, 1917b:319. – nec Antiga and Bofill, 1904:10, Mercet, 1910b:165, Berland, 1921, and Bernard, 1934a:62 (= Liris festinans praetermissa); Morice, 1911:97 (Algeria: Alger, Biskra), 1921:79 (Iraq: Amara); Dollfuss, 1989:10 (type material in NHMW).

Notogonia reticulata de Saussure, 1892:512, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Lectotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: Antananarivo or Anosibé in Bezanozano Province, or Imerina Province (MHNG), designated by Leclercq, 1961d:116 (specific locality not mentioned). – R. Turner, 1911b:370 (Seychelles Islands).  As Motes nigricans reticulata: Leclercq, 1960a:97 (Madagascar), 1961d:116 (Madagascar).  As Liris nigricans reticulata: Arnold, 1945:132 (Madagascar: Bekily).  As Liris nigricans var. reticulata: Arnold, 1951:160 (Ethiopia: Dilla).

Larra jugurthae Gribodo, 1894b:22, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes), female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) (as Jugurthae, incorrect original capitalization). Lectotype: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) , "Algeria: Boghari, Biskra", correctly: Tunisia: Tunis (Genova), designated by de Beaumont, 1950e:263. Synonymized with Liris nigricans by Guiglia, 1937:186. – de Beaumont, 1950e:263 (synonymy confirmed).

Larra palumbula Kohl, 1894:304, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) . Holotype or syntypes: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) , Cameroon: no specific locality (TMP). Synonymized with Notogonia nigricans by Richards, 1928a:362, and with Notogonia reticulata by Arnold, 1944:23.   As Notogonia palumbula: Kohl, 1906a:219 (new combination, Yemen: Socotra Island); R. Turner, 1917b:319 (merely the tropical race of nigricans).  As Notogonidea nigricans, race palumbula: Arnold, 1923b:243 (revision); Schouteden, 1930:91 (Zaire).

Notogonia mahensis Cameron, 1907e:78, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Holotype: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes), Seychelles Islands: Mahé (BMNH), a headless specimen. Synonymized with Notogonia reticulata by R. Turner, 1911b:370.

Notogonia punctipleura Cameron, 1908a:285, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Holotype or syntypes: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes), Tanzania: Mt. Kilimanjaro: Kibonoto (NRS). Synonymized with Notogonidea nigricans palumbula by R. Turner, 1917b:319.

radialis (de Saussure)

Notogonia radialis de Saussure, 1887:17, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Lectotype: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) , Madagascar: no specific locality (MHNG), designated by Arnold, 1940:123.  de Saussure, 1892:467 (Madagascar, redescription); nec Arnold, 1929:394 (= Liris memnonius); Giordani Soika, 1939c:101 (Eritrea: Asmara).  As Motes radialis: Arnold, 1940:123 (synonymy); Leclercq, 1960a:97 (Madagascar), 1961d:114 (Madagascar, illegal designation of lectotype).  As Leptolarra radialis: Guiglia, 1939d:76 (Ethiopia: Sidamo: Malca Guba). – As Liris radialis: Arnold, 1945:127 (Madagascar: redescription and interpretation of the species); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:247 (listed).

Notogonia radamae de Saussure, 1891:260, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) (as Radamae, incorrect original capitalization). Holotype or syntypes: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes), Madagascar: no specific locality (MHNG). Synonymized with Liris radialis by Leclercq, 1961d:114.   As Liris rqdamae: Arnold, 1945:127 (Madagascar, redescription, as Radamae).

As Notogonidea sepulchralis: Arnold, 1923b:244 (revision), corrected to Notogonidea radialis by Arnold, 1929c:394.

sabrinus (Leclercq)

Motes sabrina Leclercq, 1961d:114, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) . Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , Madagascar: Fianarantsoa Province: Ihosy (MHNB).  As Liris sabrina: R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:247 (new combination, listed).

scabriusculus Arnold

Liris scabriuscula Arnold, 1945:131, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes), incorrect original termination. Syntypes: Madagascar: Bekily (MNHN).  R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:247 (listed).  As Motes scabriuscula: Leclercq, 1961d:115 (Madagascar).

sepulchralis hova Arnold

Liris sepulchralis hova Arnold, 1945:132, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Behara, Bekily (MNHN).  R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:247 (listed).  As Motes sepulchralis hova: Leclercq, 1960a:97 (Madagascar), 1961d:116 (Madagascar).

solstitialis (F. Smith)

Larrada solstitialis F. Smith, 1856:283, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) . Syntypes: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , South Africa: Natal: Port Natal (BMNH).  As Notogonidea solstitialis: Arnold, 1923b:238 (revision); Schouteden, 1930:92 (Zaire); Arnold, 1933a:352 (Ethiopia: Muger Valley).  As Motes solstitialis: Leclercq, 1960a:97 (Madagascar), 1961d:112 (Madagascar).  As Liris solstitialis: Arnold, 1945:121 (Madagascar; redescription; new combination), 1951:159 (Ghana: Aburi, Accra); de Beaumont, 1961f:228 (revision), 1967b:508 (South Africa: Natal); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:247 (listed).

Notogonia femoralis de Saussure, 1887:17, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Lectotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: no specific locality (MHNG), designated by Leclercq, 1961d:112. Synonymized with Motes solstitialis by Leclercq, 1961d:112. – de Saussure, 1892:502 (Madagascar, redescription).   As Larra femoralis: Kohl in Dalla Torre, 1897:667 (new combination, listed).

Notogonia cnemophila Cameron, 1908a:288, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Holotype or syntypes: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Tanzania: Mt. Kilimanjaro: Kibonoto (NRS). Synonymized with Notogonidea solstitialis by Arnold, 1923b:238.

utopicus (Leclercq)

Motes utopica Leclercq, 1961d:116, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Holotype: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes), Madagascar: Fianarantsoa Province: Infanadiana (MHNB). – As Liris utopica: R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:248 (listed).

voeltzkowii (Kohl)

Notogonia voeltzkowii Kohl, 1909:372, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: Tulear, now Toliara (ZMHU or SIF). – As Motes voeltzkowii: Leclercq, 1960a:97 (new combination, forgotten by Arnold, 1945). – As Liris voeltzkowii: R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:248 (listed).

xanthopterus Arnold

Liris xanthoptera Arnold, 1945:121, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes), incorrect original termination. Syntypes: Madagascar: Bekily, Fort Dauphin (MNHN). – R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:248 (listed). – As Motes xanthoptera: Leclercq, 1960a:98 (new combination, Madagascar).

 

LYRODA

 

Lyroda Say, 1837:372. Type species: Lyroda subita Say: 1837, designated by Patton, 1880b:386.

Morphota F. Smith, 1856:293. Type species: Morphota fasciata F. Smith, 1856, designated by Pate, 1837c:41.

Odontolarra Cameron, 1900a:35. Type species: Odontolarra rufiventris Cameron, 1900 [= Morphota formosa F. Smith, 1859], by monotypy.

Lyrodon Howard, 1901:pl. 6, fig. 5. Lapsus for Lyroda Say, 1837. Junior homonym of Lyrodon Goldfuss, 1837.

madecassa Arnold

Lyroda madecassa Arnold, 1945:91, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Behara, Bekily (MNHN). – Leclercq, 1960a:97 (Madagascar), 1961d:108 (Madagascar); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:299 (listed); Leclercq, 1990b:117 (Madagascar).

 

MISCOPHUS

 

Miscophus Jurine, 1807:206. Type species: Miscophus bicolor Jurine, 1807, by monotypy.

Nitelopterus Ashmead, 1897a:22. Type species: Nitelopterus slossonae Ashmead, 1897, by monotypy.

Hypomiscophus Cockerell, 1898:321. Type species: Miscophus arenarum Cockerell, 1898, by original designation.

Miscophinus Ashmead, 1898:187. Type species: Miscophus laticeps Ashmead, 1898, by original designation.

maculipes Arnold

Miscophus maculipes Arnold, 1945:136, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: Bekily (MNHN). – Arnold, 1945:135 (in key); Leclercq, 1960a:997 (Madagascar); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:318 (listed); Lomholdt, 1985:86 (revision); Hancock, Chahwanda, and Mhlanga, 1995:38 (paratypes in Bulawayo Museum).

seyrigi Arnold

Miscophus Seyrigi Arnold, 1945:135, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes), incorrect original capitalization. Syntypes: Madagascar: Bekily (MNHN). – Arnold, 1945:135 (in key); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:319 (listed); Lomholdt, 1985:79 (revision); Hancock, Chahwanda, and Mhlanga, 1995:39 (paratype in Bulawayo Museum).

sordidatus Arnold

Miscophus sordidatus Arnold, 1945:137, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: Bekily (MNHN). – Arnold, 1945:135 (in key); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:319 (listed); Lomholdt, 1985:98 (revision).

 

NEODASYPROCTUS

 

Neodasyproctus Arnold, 1926:373. Type species: Thyreopus kohli Arnold, 1926, by monotypy.

densepunctatus (Arnold)

Crabro densepunctatus Arnold, 1945:174, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Lectotype: Madagascar: Ivondro (MNHN), designated by Leclercq, 1999b:156. – As Neodasyproctus densepunctatus: Leclercq, 1954c:256 (new combination, listed); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:419 (listed); Leclercq, 1999b:156 (in revision of genus).

Neodasyproctus ferrierei Leclercq, 1951h:333, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) (as Ferrièrei, incorrect original capitalization and diacritic mark). Holotype: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) , Madagascar: no specific locality (MHNG). Synonymized with Neodasyproctus densepunctatus by Leclercq, 1996b:156. – Leclercq, 1954c:256 (listed), 1961b:89 (Madagascar, diagnostic characters); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:419 (listed).

didynus Leclercq

Neodasyproctus didynus Leclercq, 1999b:157, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) . Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: Tamatave: Didy (FSAG).

eburneopictus (Arnold)

Crabro eburneopictus Arnold, 1945:175, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: Ambositra (MNHN). – As Neodasyproctus eburneopictus: Leclercq, 1954c:256 (new combination, listed); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:419 (listed); Leclercq, 1999b:158 (in revision of genus).

isalonus Leclercq

Neodasyproctus isalonus Leclercq, 1999b:158, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: Fianarantsoa: Isalo National Park: Analalva (FSAG).

protensus (Arnold)

Crabro protensus Arnold, 1945:178, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) . Syntypes: Madagascar: Behara (MNHN). – As Neodasyproctus protensus: Leclercq, 1954c:256 (new combination, listed); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:419 (listed); Leclercq, 1999b:159 (in revision of genus).

remanus Leclercq

Neodasyproctus remanus Leclercq, 1999b:159, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Holotype: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes), Madagascar: Fianarantsoa: Vohiparara (FSAG).

striolatus (Arnold)

Crabro striolatus Arnold, 1945:176, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Bekily (MNHN). – As Neodasyproctus striolatus: Leclercq, 1954c:256 (new combination, listed); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:419 (listed); Leclercq, 1999b:160 (in revision of genus).

 

OXYBELUS

 

Oxybelus Latreille, 1796:129, no included species. Type species: Crabro uniglumis of Fabricius, 1775 [= Vespa uniglumis Linnaeus, 1758], designated by Latreille, 1802b:343 (first included species).

Notoglossa Dahlbom, 1845:514. Type species: Notoglossa sagittaria Dahlbom, 1845 [= Oxybelus lamellatus Olivier, 1811], by monotypy.

Alepidaspis A. Costa, 1882b:35. Type species: Alepidaspis diphyllus A. Costa, 1882, by monotypy.

Anoxybelus Kohl, 1924:274. Type species: Oxybelus maidli Kohl, 1924, by monotypy.

Gonioxybelus Minkiewicz, 1934:251. Not available: type species not designated (Article 13.3).

Orthoxybelus Minkiewicz, 1934:251. Not available: type species not designated (Article 13.3).

Gonioxybelus Pate, 1937c:28. Type species: Oxybelus nigripes Olivier, 1811 [= Apis trispinosa Fabricius, 1787], by original designation.

Orthoxybelus Pate, 1937c:28. Type species: Vespa uniglumis Linnaeus, 1758, by original designation.

Euoxybelus Noskiewicz and Chudoba, 1950:300. Not available: type species not designated (Article 13.3).

Latroxybelus Noskiewicz and Chudoba, 1950:300. Type species: Oxybelus latro Olivier, 1811, by monotypy.

cristatus de Saussure

Oxybelus cristatus de Saussure, 1892:559, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Bezanozano Province: Anosibé (MHNG). – Dalla Torre, 1897:640 (in catalog of world Sphecidae); Arnold, 1945:187 (Madagascar; redescription); Leclercq, 1960a:100 (Madagascar), 1961d:118 (Madagascar); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:367 (listed); Leclercq, 1990b:120 (Madagascar).

perornatus Arnold

Oxybelus perornatus Arnold, 1945:186, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Bekily (MNHN). – Leclercq, 1961d:118 (Madagascar); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:369 (listed); Leclercq, 1990b:120 (Madagascar).

subcristatus de Saussure

Oxybelus subcristatus de Saussure, 1892:561, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Syntypes: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , Madagascar: Bezanozano Province: Anosibé (MHNG). – Dalla Torre, 1897:648 (in catalog of world Sphecidae); Arnold, 1945:188 (Madagascar; redescription); Leclercq, 1960a:100 (Madagascar), 1961d:118 (Madagascar); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:369 (listed); Leclercq, 1990b:120 (Madagascar); Madl, 1997:821 (Madagascar: Nosy Boraha Island), 822 (in checklist of Nosy Boraha Sphecidae).

 

PARAPIAGETIA

 

Parapiagetia Kohl, 1897a:373. Type species: Piagetia odontostoma Kohl, 1884, by original designation.

Lirosphex Brèthes, 1913b:150. Type species: Tachysphex subpetiolatus Brèthes, by original designation. Synonymized with Parapiagetia Kohl, 1896 by Menke in Bohart and Menke, 1976:44.

Psammosphex Gussakovskij, 1952:246. Type species: Tachysphex genicularis F. Morawitz, 1890, by original designation.

longicornis Arnold

Parapiagetia longicornis Arnold, 1945:93, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Lectotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , Madagascar: Behara (MNHN), designated by Pulawski, 1977b:639. – Leclercq, 1961d:108 (Madagascar); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:281 (listed); Pulawski, 1977b:639 (revision); Leclercq, 1990b:117 (Madagascar).

pluridentata Arnold

Parapiagetia pluridentata Arnold, 1945:94, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) . Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: Bekily (MNHN). – R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:281 (listed); Pulawski, 1977b:635 (revision).

 

PERICRABRO

 

Pericrabro Leclercq, 1954c:219. Type species: Thyreopus sociabilis Arnold, 1932, by original designation and monotypy. Established as subgenus of Crossocerus, raised to genus by Leclercq, 2000b.

sociabilis (Arnold)

Thyreopus sociabilis Arnold, 1932:27, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , Zimbabwe: Bulawayo: Hillside (SAM). – Arnold, 1945:180 (Madagascar: Bekily). – As Crossocerus sociabilis: Leclercq, 1954c:220 (new combination, type of new subgenus Pericrabro), 304 (nest and prey records); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:403 (listed); Rodgers and Homewood, 1982:233 (Tanzania: Usambara Mountains). – As Pericrabro sociabilis: Leclercq, 2000b:160 (new combination, discussion of generic position).

 

PHILANTHUS

 

Philanthus Fabricius, 1790:224. Type species: Philanthus coronatus Fabricius, 1790 [= Sphex coronatus Thunberg, 1784], designated by Shuckard, 1837:246.

Symblephilus Panzer, 1806:171. Type species: Philanthus pictus Panzer, 1797 [= Vespa triangulum Fabricius, 1775], designated by Pate, 1937c:62.

Simblephilus Jurine, 1807:185. Type species: Vespa triangulum Fabricius, 1775, designated by Morice and Durrant, 1915:402.

Cheilopogonus Westwood, 1834:441. Type species: Cheilopogonus punctiger Westwood, 1834 [= Vespa gibbosa Fabricius, 1775], by monotypy.

Philianthus Guérin-Méneville, 1835:pl. 71, fig 8. Lapsus for Philanthus Fabricius, 1790.

Anthophilus Dahlbom, 1844:190. Type species: Philanthus politus Say, 1824, designated by Ashmead, 1899d:294.

Chilopogon Kohl, 1897a:329. Emendation of Cheilopogonus Westwood, 1834.

Ephiphilanthus Ashmead, 1899d:294. Type species: Philanthus solivagus Say, 1837, by original designation.

Pseudophilanthus Ashmead, 1899d:294. Type species: Philanthus ventilabris Fabricius, 1798, by original designation.

Oclocletes Banks, 1913b:423. Type species: Philanthus sanbornii Cresson, 1865, by original designation.

Ococletes Mickel, 1916a:407. Lapsus or emendation of Oclocletes Banks, 1913.

bimacula de Saussure

Philanthus bimacula de Saussure, 1891:261, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) (actually male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) ). Holotype or syntypes: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , Madagascar: no specific locality (MHNG). – de Saussure, 1892:535 (Madagascar; redescription, as male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) ); Arnold, 1945:16 (Madagascar); Leclercq, 1962b:209 (Madagascar); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:564 (listed; as bimaculus), 565 (footnote: nomenclatorical history); Leclercq, 1990b:120 (Madagascar, as bimaculus).

Philanthus immitis de Saussure, 1892:537, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) . Syntypes: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , Madagascar: Antananarivo (MHNG). Synonymized with Philanthus bimacula by W. Schulz, 1911b:173.

madagascariensis Brethès

Philanthus petiolatus de Saussure, 1892:538, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) (incorrectly referred to as published in de Saussure, 1891). Syntypes: Madagascar: Imerina Province: no specific locality (MHNG). Primary homonym of Philanthus petiolatus Spinola, 1841 (now in Trachypus).

Philanthus madagascariensis Brèthes, 1910:277. Replacement name for Philanthus petiolatus de Saussure, 1892 (incorrectly referred to as published in de Saussure, 1891). – R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:565 (listed); Leclercq, 1990b:120 (Madagascar).

Philanthus ranavalonae Arnold, 1945:16 (as Ranavalonae , incorrect original capitalization). Unnecessary replacement name for Philanthus petiolatus de Saussure, 1892. – Arnold, 1945:16 (redescription); Madagascar); Leclercq, 1962b:209 (Madagascar, variation).

radamae Arnold

Philanthus radamae Arnold, 1945:17, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) . (as Radamae, incorrect original capitalization). Syntypes: Madagascar: Behara, Bekily (MNHN). – R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:566 (listed); Leclercq, 1990b:120 (Madagascar); Hancock, Chahwanda, and Mhlanga, 1995:39 (syntypes in Bulawayo Museum).

triangulum (Fabricius)

Vespa ruspatrix Linnaeus, 1767:951, sex not indicated. Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , Africa: no specific locality, probably Algeria (Linnean Society, London). Suppressed by International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 1990, Opinion 1578. – Gmelin, 1790:2758 (redescription); Christ, 1791:241 (redescription, as ruspatris); de Saussure, 1855:105 (not a vespid); Day, 1979:71 (study of holotype; possibility of suppression of the name in favor of triangulum); Day and Fitton, 1978:194 (recuration of Linnean type material); Pulawski, 1988b:34 (petition to ICZN to suppress the name). – As Philanthus ruspatrix: Menke, 1986b:21 (quotation of Day, 1979:71); Vikberg, 1986:78 (Finland).

Vespa triangulum Fabricius, 1775:373, sex not indicated. Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , Denmark: Copenhagen (ZMK), see van der Vecht, 1961a:61. Synonymized with Philanthus ruspatrix by Day, 1779:71 and 80. Conserved by International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 1990, Opinion 1578. – Gmelin, 1790:2758 (redescription); van der Vecht, 1961a:61 (study of type); Pulawski, 1988b:34 (petition to ICZN to conserve the name). – As Philanthus triangulum: Fabricius, 1790:224 (new combination), 1793:289 (redescription), 1804:302 (redescription); Thunberg, 1815a:127 (diagnostic characters), 131 (redescription), 1815b:288 (diagnostic characters); Shuckard, 1837a:246 (in revision of British Aculeata); von Siebold, 1839:53 (Germany: Danzig, now Poland: Gdansk); Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, 1845:35 (revision); Eversmann, 1849:398 (Russia: Orenburg province and lower Volga area); Wesmael, 1852:268 (Belgium); Kawall, 1854:312 (Czechoslovakia); F. Smith, 1856:468 (listed); Kirchner, 1857:24 (Kurland, now Latvia); Ruthe and Stein, 1857:314 (Germany: Berlin area); Taschenberg, 1858:83 (Germany); Brischke, 1862:102 (Germany: Preussen Province, now Poland: Pomorze); Wierzejski, 1868 (Poland: Kraków, Pieniny Mts.; Ukraine: Lvov); A. Costa, 1869b:112 (in revision of Italian Philanthinae); Aichinger, 1870:316 (Austria: Tirol); Thomson, 1870:241 (in revision of Swedish wasps); Ivanov, 1872:152 (Ukraine: Kharkov area); Bieletskij, 1873:80 (Ukraine: Kharkov area); Wierzejski, 1874:260 (Poland: Kraków; Ukraine: Lvov, Podole); Marquet, 1875:204 (France: Haute-Garonne: Toulouse); Taschenberg, 1875:404 (Germany: Halle; Italy: La Spezia; Egypt: no specific locality); Frivaldszky, 1876:354 (Hungary: Temes Komitat: Grebenácz, now in Timis District in Romania); Schlechtendal, 1876:54 (Germany: Zwickau); Radoszkowski, 1877:52 (Uzbekistan?: Obburden); De Stefani Perez, 1882:39 (Italy: Sicilia: Sciacca); A. Costa, 1883a:57 (Italy: Sardegna); Wüstnei, 1886:40 (Germany: Schleswig-Holstein); Brischke, 1888b:98 (Poland: Pomorze); Radoszkowski, 1888a:324 (male genitalia); Kohl, 1891:365 (listed); Radoszkowski, 1891:579 (reference to Radoszkowski, 1888a); Kohl, 1883e:183 (Egypt: Cairo); Baldini, 1894:61 (Italy: Modena area); De Stefani Perez, 1894:216 (Italy: Sicilia); Krieger, 1894:13 (Germany: Kingdom of Saxony); De Stefani Perez, 1895:227 (in catalog of Sicilian Hymenoptera); Lüderwaldt, 1897:31 (Poland: Pomorze); Ferton, 1899:336 (stinging prey just behind mouth); E. Saunders, 1902b:143 (British Channel Islands); Antiga and Bofill, 1904:22 (Spain: Cataluña Province); Aurivillius, 1904:272 (in revision of Swedish Sphecidae); E. Saunders, 1904c:607 (Spain: Mayorca), 639 (Spain); Zilahy Kiss, 1904:77 (Hungary); W. Schulz, 1905b:61 (Tunisia); von Heyden, 1905:82 (Germany: Hessen); Kohl, 1906a:203 (Yemen: Aden, Makalla); de Gaulle, 1908:120 (in catalog of French Hymenoptera); Kohl, 1909:373 (Tanzania: Mafia Island); Graeffe, 1911:47 (Italy: Trieste area); Morice, 1911:93 (Algeria: abundant everywhere); Birula, 1912:544 (Ukraine: Radomysl near Kiev); Schirmer, 1912:168 (Germany: Berlin area); Bouvier, 1916:205 (males burrows; gregarious nocturnal sites); R. Turner, 1918c:463 (synonymy, distribution: the whole Ethiopian Region); Strand, 1920:23 (Germany: Berlin-Dahlem); Morice, 1921:77 (Iran: Enzeli, Talish); Gennerich, 1922:42 (morphology); Maidl, 1922:69 (Albania, Croatia); Shestakov, 1922:82 (Russia: Stavropol' area); Alfken, 1924:231 (N Germany); Maidl, 1924:243 (Sudan: Sennar); Berland, 1925d:45 (in Sphecid Fauna of France); Grandi, 1926:283 (life history); Hémon, 1926:199 (France: Finistère: Fouesnant); von Schulthess, 1926b:212 (Algeria, Tunisia, Libya); Wouro, 1927:312 (apicultural pest); Grandi, 1928a:13 (nesting in hard soil, nest entrance closed when the female is inside with prey); Mellor, 1928:126 (preying at honey bee at Ghiza, Egypt), 129 (Egypt); Schouteden, 1930:93 (Zaire); Bischoff, 1931:9 (Spain); Berland, 1932a:23 (France: Var Department; utilizing old charcoal preparation sites for nesting); Giordani Soika, 1932a:21 (Italy: Lido di Venezia); Thiem, 1932:173 (mass outbreak and threat to apiculture in Werra Valley, Germany); Tinbergen, 1932:305 (life history, homing); Bernard, 1933:61 (France: Drôme: Dieulefit); Nadig, 1933:95 (Morocco); Thiem, 1933:121 (threat to apiculture in Werra Valley, Germany); Giner Marí, 1934:131 (Spain); Maidl, 1934:64 (Greece: Aegean Islands: Samos, Amorgos); Thiem, 1934:13, 43 (pest control); Bernard, 1935:62 (France: Var: Fréjus area); Goetze, 1935:304 (pest control); Hausmann, 1935:150 (mass outbreak in Düren District, Germany); Körner, 1935:274 (mass outbreak and damage to apiculture); Pelzer, 1935:310 (mass outbreak in Dinslaken District, Germany); Rudiger, 1935:57 (mass outbreak in Germany and Holland); Thiem, 1935a:348 (end of mass outbreak in Werra Valley, Germany), 1935b:112 (apicultural pest); Tinbergen, 1935:699 (analysis of preying behavior); Crèvecoeur and Maréchal, 1936:254 (Belgium); Pelzer, 1936:41 (description of morphology and nesting behavior); Roller, 1936:315 (Austria: loess cliffs at Bisamberg near Vienna); Guiglia, 1938:8 (Italy: Sardegna); Tinbergen and Kruyt, 1938:292 (study of spacial orientation); Balthasar, 1941b:112 (Czech Republic: eastern Moravia); Bræstrup and Nielsen, 1941: (Denmark); Leclercq, 1941b:13 (Belgium: Liège area); Guiglia, 1942a:55 (Greece: Rhodes Island); Audcent, 1942:25 (parasites: Metopia leucocephala Rossi, Sphecapata conica Fallén); Giner Marí, 1943a:111 (in Sphecid Fauna of Spain); Guiglia, 1943a:69 (Albania); Timon-David, 1943:29 (France: plage de Fos); Guiglia, 1944a:145 (Cyprus; also var. diadema Fabr.), 1944b:10 (Italy); Leclercq, 1944:264 (variation in population levels in Belgium); Arnold, 1945:15 (Madagascar); de Beaumont, 1947b:384 (Cyprus); Guiglia, 1947a:28 (Italy), 1948c:200 (Italy: Sardegna); de Andrade, 1949:12 (Portugal); Niesiolowski, 1950:225 (Poland: Lubasz 40 km N Tarnów); Scobiola, 1950:18 (Romania); de Beaumont, 1951c:302 (revision), 1951h:32 (Switzerland: Neuchâtel area); Leclercq, 1951b:67 (yellow body pigments are pterines); Caruel, 1952a:62 (France: Marne Department); Hirschfelder, 1952a (preying behavior); Cleu, 1953:50 (France: Ardèche River basin); Glowacki, 1953:520 (Poland: Warszawa area: Podkowa Lesna, Choszczówka); Leclercq, 1953a:249 (Belgium: particularly abundant about 1900, but infrequent between 1940 and 1952); Móczár, 1953:309 (Hungary); Bischoff and Stadler, 1954:127 (Germany: Bayern: Romberg); Grandi, 1954:236 (Italy); Aerts, 1955:63 (Germany: Rheinland; life history); Steiner, 1955:136 (France: Dordogne); Bytinski-Salz, 1956:224 (Turkey); Hirschfelder, 1956:96 (mass outbreak in Franken, Germany and its control); Leclercq, 1956g:325 (Greece); de Beaumont, 1957b:131 (n. Iran); Evans, 1957b:84 (discussion of larval characters); Grandi, 1957:387 (Italy); Pulawski, 1958a:165 (Bulgaria; diagnostic characters); Compte Sart, 1959:131 (Spain: Mayorca); de Beaumont, 1959a:11 (Italy); Suárez, 1959:54 (Spain: Almería Province); van der Vecht, 1959a:67 (Sphex xanthocephalus Forster, 1771, is the oldest name for the species [actually, it is a junior synonym of Cerceris arenaria]); Wolf, 1959b:31 (Germany: Nassau); de Beaumont, 1960a:6 (Greece: Rhodes Island); Leclercq, 1960b:130 (massive expansion in 1930s was followed by regression between 1940 and 1952); de Beaumont, 1961b:273 (Afghanistan), 1961c:45 (Greece: Crete Island), 1961e:3 (Iraq); Grandi, 1961:161 (life history), 477 (larva); Hoop, 1961:66 (Germany: Schleswig-Holstein); Leclercq, 1961d:102 (Madagascar); van der Vecht, 1961a:61 (study of type); Leclercq, 1962b:210 (Madagascar); de Beaumont, 1962b:20 (Spain); Erlandsson, 1962:208 (distribution in Scandinavia); Pohl, 1963:14 (an apicultural pest); Scobiola-Palade, 1963:825 (Romania); Babiy, 1964:117 (Austria: Land Salzburg); de Beaumont, 1965a:18 (Greece); B. Klug, 1965:138 (Germany: Rheinland); Roberti, Frilli, and Pizzaghi, 1965:109 (Italy); Piek, 1966a:191-198 (venom); Scobiola-Palade, 1966b:391 (Romania); Balthasar, Hrubant, and Hrubant, 1967:174 (Bulgaria: Slanchev Bryag near Nessebar); de Beaumont, 1967a:277 (Turkey); Heinrich, 1967:70 (Germany: Niederfranken); Niedl and Deneš, 1967:84 (Czechoslovakia); Scobiola-Palade, 1967a:161 (Romania), 1967b:39 (Romania); Benedek, 1968:71 (Hungary; floral records); Scobiola-Palade, 1968b:141 (Romania), 1968c:382 (Romania); de Beaumont, 1969:81 (Turkey); Benedek, 1969a:83 (Hungary; marshy meadow); Dathe, 1969:439 (Germany: Berlin); Romanova, 1969:133 (Russia: North Caucasus); Simon Thomas, 1969b (collection specimens for venom production); Zangheri, 1969:1700 (Italy); de Beaumont, 1970a:396 (Afghanistan), 1970c:4 (Iran: Khorassan); Benedek, 1970:96 (Hungary: Tapolca); Oehlke, 1970:679 (Democratic Germany); Dathe, 1971:234 (Germany: Berlin; phenology); Hoop, 1971:83 (Germany: Schleswig-Holstein); Piek, Mantel, and Engels, 1971:317-331 (venom causing neuromuscular block); Schmidt, 1971b:24 (Germany: Mainz area); Stritt, 1971:104 (Germany: Karlsruhe); Valetta, 1971:46 (Malta); Vegter, 1971:229 (Netherlands: Drenthe Province); Zonderwijk, 1971:79 (Netherlands); Atanassov, 1972a:191 (Bulgaria), 1972b:32, 48, 53 (Bulgaria); Balthasar, 1972:381 (Czechoslovakia; revision); Kazenas, 1972b:123 (Kazakhstan); Myartseva, 1972b:106 (parasite: Senotainia pygmaea (Rondani)); Scobiola-Palade, 1972a:149 (Romania), 1972b:251 (Romania); Simon Thomas, 1972:176 France); Simon Thomas and Poorter, 1972:141 (male behavior); Simon Thomas and Simon Thomas, 1972:123 (nesting behavior); Leclercq, 1973d:166 (regression in Belgium following cold winter of 1942); Simon Thomas and Simon Thomas Heijmans, 1973:64 (Netherlands; life history); Wolf, 1973:41 (Germany: Siegerländer Hüttensand); Erlandsson, 1974:61 (France, Greece, Italy, Malta, Spain); Simon Thomas, 1974:56 (Netherlands: Limburg); Simon Thomas and Veenendaal, 1974b:3 (France); Benedek, 1975:257 (Hungary; onion pollination); Lomholdt, 1975c:31 (Denmark); Piek and Nijo, 1975:199-201 (venom causing neuromuscular block in honeybee); Abdul Rassoul, 1976:31 (Iraq); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:566 (listed); Simon Thomas, 1976:3 (France: Lot-et-Garonne); Simon Thomas and Simon Thomas, 1976:1-23 (Egypt: Dakhla oasis; life history); Georghiou, 1977:191 (Cyprus); Haeseler, 1977a:23 (Federal Germany), 1977b:289-292 (NW Germany); Kolesnikov, 1977:317 (Russian Federation: Bryansk Oblast'); Cruysbergh, 1978:97 (Netherlands); Erlandsson, 1978b:131-134 (Sweden); Guichard, 1978:270 (Greece); Haeseler, 1978b:63 (Federal Germany; bog); Kazenas, 1978b:46 (in key to Sphecidae of Kazakhstan and Central Asia); Leclercq, 1978b:map 1193 (distribution in Belgium); Marion, 1978:86 (France: Nièvre Department); Petit, 1978:86 (Belgium); Simon Thomas and Simon Thomas, 1978:450-456 (life history); Simon Thomas and Veenendaal, 1978:3-8 (underground activity); Schwammberger, 1978:416 (Germany: Württemberg); Lefeber, 1979:33 (Netherlands: distribution); May and Piek, 1979:685 (venom causes neuromuscular block in locust skeletal muscle); Richards, 1979:402 (British Channel Islands); Schmidt, 1979a:54 (Germany: Ost-Holstein), 1979b:298 (Federal Germany); Schwammberger, 1979:114 (Germany: Nordrhein-Westfalen: Gildehauser Venn Nature Reserve); Borg-Karlson and Tengö, 1980:828 (pyrazines as marking volatiles); Casolari and Casolari Moreno, 1980:122 (specimens in M. Spinola collection); Pagliano, 1980:124 (Italy: Piemonte, Sicilia); Piek, Mantel, and Jas, 1980:345 (venom causes ion-channel block in insect muscle fibre membrane); Wollin, 1980:107 (Sweden); Gess, 1981:21 (South Africa: 18 km WNW Grahamstown; nesting in clayey friable soils); Heath and Leclercq, 1981: map 17 (distribution in Europe); Józan, 1981:304 (Hungary: Hortobágy National Park); Woydak, 1981:39 (Germany: Westfalen: Hamm); Clark, Donaldson, Gration, Lambert, Piek, Ramsey, Spanjer, and Userwood, 1992:105 (block of locust muscle glutamate receptors by d-philanthotoxin); Donath, 1982:212 (Germany: Cottbus Bezirk); Dunbar and Piek, 1982:79-84 (action of venom on insect visceral muscle); Gayubo, 1982e:109 (Spain: Cadiz Province); Leclercq, 1982a:125 (Belgium: Li?ge); Piek, 1982:311 (effects and components of venom); Piek, Spanjer, Veldsema-Currie, van Groen, de Haan, and Mantel, 1982:159-164 (effect of venom on cockroach abdominal ganglia); van Marle, Piek, Lind, and van Weeren-Kramer, 1982:343 (venom reducing glutamate uptake in nerve endings of locusts muscles); Dollfuss, 1983b:24 (Austria); Gayubo, 1983e:236 (Spain: Salamanca Province); Piek, Buitenhuis, Veldsema-Currie, and Mantel, 1983:153-159 (venom contains acetylcholine, but no histamine); Riemann, 1983:83 (Germany: Bremen-Daverden area); Schmidt and Westrich, 1983:125 (Greece); Burger, de Goffau, and Ulenberg, 1984:147 (Netherlands); Chevin and Silvestre de Sacy, 1984:10 (France: Yvelines Department); Gayubo, 1984c:382 (Portugal: El Algarve Province); Gayubo and Tormos, 1984:23 (Spain: Valencia); Haack, Tscharntke, and Vidal, 1984:132 (Germany: Hamburg area); Janzon and Svensson, 1984:183 (Sweden: Öland Island); Piek, Hue, Pelhate, David, Spanjer, and Veldsema-Currie, 1984:297-306 (philanthotoxin blocking postsynaptic membrane); Schmidt and Westrich, 1984:240 (Federal Germany: Rheinland-Pfalz: Bad Münster); Archer, 1985b:156 (Britain: Suffolk); Chevin and Chevin, 1985:39 (France: Aude); de Man, 1985:23 (Netherlands); Gayubo, 1985a:489 (prey: Apis mellifera Linnaeus); Eiroa and Novoa, 1985:23 (Spain: Pontevedra: Barra beach near Cangas); Haeseler, 1985c:571 (Federal Germany: Friesian Islands); Józan, 1985b:62 (Hungary S Lake Balaton), 82 (floral records), 85 (ecological and zoogeographic characteristics); Koster, 1985:75 (Netherlands: common along railways); Lefeber, 1985:87 (Netherlands: southern Limburg); Nilsson, 1985:43 (Sweden); Scobiola-Palade, 1985:95 (Romania: delta of Danube); Gayubo, 1986a:66 (Spain: Ciudad Real Province), 1986b:41 (Spain: Andalucía), 1986d:122 (Spain: Zamora Province), 1986f:1002 (prey); Gayubo and Sanza, 1986:84 (Spain: Burgos, Soria); Gayubo and Tormos, 1986a:19 (Spain: Castellón de la Plana); Islamov, 1986:518 (Uzbekistan: Tashkent Oblast); Józan, 1986:374 (Hungary: Kiskunság National Park); Piek, 1986b:190 (morphological and physiological differences between triangulum triangulum and triangulum abdelcader); Piek and Mantel, 1986:433 (differences in venom between Dutch and Egyptian populations); Pagliano, 1987:159 (Italy, in key); Scobiola-Palade, 1987:65 (Romania: Dobrogea); Schmidt and Westrich, 1987: (Federal Germany: Mainz area); Tormos and Jiménez, 1987a:127 (Spain: Valencia Province), 1987b:317 (Spain: Valencia Province: Dehesa de El Saler); Veenendaal, 1987:169 (parasite: Hedychrum rutilans Dahlbom); Asís and Jiménez, 1988:276 (Spain: Castellón Province); Chevin, 1988:16 (France: La Manche Department); Dollfuss, 1988:19, 30 (Austria: Bisamberg near Vienna; Niederösterreich: Oberweiden); Karsai, 1988:101 (Hungary: Kiskunság National Park); Kowalczyk, 1988a:45 (Poland: Rogów) Kowalczyk, 1988b:64 (Poland: environs of Lódz); Pagliano, 1988:138 (Italy, revision); Pulawski, 1988:34 (petition to ICZN to preserve the name); Riemann, 1988:223 (Germany: Bremen area); Wolf, 1988:143 (Germany: Rheinland-Westfalen); Archer, 1989b:232 (Great Britain: Suffolk); Borsato, 1989:201 (Italy: Lombardia: Busatello marsh); Hamon, 1989:45 (support of petition to ICZN to preserve the name); Jacobs, 1989:28 (Germany: Mecklenburg-Vorpommern); Józan, 1989:102 (Hungary: Tihany Natural Reserve); Lomholdt, 1989:45 (support of petition to ICZN to preserve the name); Pádr in Sedivy, 1989a:166 (in checklist of Czechoslovakian Sphecidae); Scobiola-Palade, 1989:87 (Romania: delta of Danube); Weiffenbach, 1989:107 (Germany: Hessen: Gießen area); Barbier, Rasmont, and Wahis, 1990:32 (Belgium: Hainaut); Gayubo, Asís, and Tormos, 1990b:80 (Spain); Jacobs and Oehlke, 1990:215 (new records from Democratic Germany); Schmidt, McDaniel, and Simon Thomas, 1990:2135 (chemistry of male mandibular gland secretions); Kowalczyk, 1990:290 (Poland: Góry Swietokrzyskie); Pagliano, 1990:95 (in catalog of Italian Sphecidae); Riemann and Melber, 1990:120 (Calluna-meadows); Rohe, 1990:1049 (Germany: Rheinland-Pfalz: Lenneberg forest); Schwammberger and Priesner, 1990:553 (Austria: Kärtnen); Day, 1991:xviii (summary of European Endangered Hymenoptera Lists); Archer, 1991a:34 (Great Britain: Isle of Wight); Gayubo, 1991a:127 (characteristics of the species); Gayubo, Borsato, and Osella, 1991:419 (Italy); Gayubo and Torres, 1991:Table I and p. 81 (Spain: Salamanca; effects of urban pressure); Guichard, 1991a:338 (Jordan); Jacobs, 1991:46 (Germany: Mecklenburg-Vorpommern: Nature Reserve Elbtaldünen); Jakubzik, 1991:74 (Germany: Köln); Józan, 1991:605 (Hungary: Bátorliget Nature Reserve); Karst and Piek, 1991:479 (action of philanthotoxins); Karst, Piek, Van Marle, Lind, and Weeren-Kramer, 1991:471 (action of philanthotoxins); Kuhlmann et al., 1991:92 (Germany: Senne Region); Negrisolo, 1991:323 (Italy: Gorizia, Trieste, and Venezia Provinces); Schembri, 1991:177 (Malta); Benson, Schürmann, Kaufmann, Gsell, and Piek, 1992:267 (action of philanthotoxins); H.-J.Schulz, 1991:30 (Germany: Oberlausitz: 5 km SW Wittichenau); Gayubo, Borsato, and Osella, 1992:290 (Greece, Spain); Gunnardo, 1992:59 (Sweden: Varmländ); Haeseler, 1992:354 (possibly not native on Frisean Islands); Józan, 1992a:230 (Hungary: Béda-Karapancsa Protected Area); Archer, 1993:46 (Great Britain: Channel Islands); Else, 1993a:163 (southern England); Gorobchishin, 1993:47 (Ukraine: Kanev Nature Reserve); Kuhlmann, 1993:76 (Germany: known from Westfalen); Luchetti, 1993:105 (Italy: Sardegna: Maddalena archipelago); Schuberth and Schönitzer, 1993:264 (facial fovea not found); Torregrosa, Gayubo, Tormos, and Asís, 1993:20 (Spain: Alicante Province); Archer, 1994b:104 (British Channel Islands); Blagoveshchenskaya, 1994:91 (Russia: Ul'yanovsk Oblast'); Gayubo and Borsato, 1994:219 (Italy: Valle d'Aosta, Liguria, Veneto, Toscana, Sardegna); Gess and Gess, 1994:100 (visiting flowers of Aspalathus linearis); Guichard, 1994a:209 (Arabian Peninsula); Schmid-Egger, 1994a:688 (Germany: Rheinland-Pfalz: Höllenberg near Grünstadt); Tormos, Asís, and Gayubo, 1994:190, 225 (Spain: Albacete Province); Baumgarten, 1995:35 (parasite: Hedychrum rutilans, a chrysidid); Else, 1995a:24 (records from southern England for 1993), 1995b:205 (records from southern England for 1994); Józan, 1995:105 (Hungary: projected Duna-Dráva National Park); Krasnobayev et al., 1995:139 (Russia: Zhiguli Hills NW Samara); Negrisolo, 1995:18 (visiting flowers of Eryngium maritimum L.), 19 (visiting flowers of Echinophora spinosa L.), 22 (Italy: Veneto); Pagliano and Pesarini, 1995:92 (Italy: Ferrara Province); Schmid-Egger, Risch, and Niehuis, 1995:187 (color photograph), 205 (summary of records from Germany: Rheinland-Pfalz Province); Archer, 1996a:59 (Great Britain: Channel Islands); S. Gess, 1996:269, 294 (floral records); Harvey and Plant, 1996:81 (Great Britain: summary of records from Essex); Jakubzik, 1996:253 (Germany: Köln); Jakubzik and Cölln, 1996b:400 (Germany: Rheinland-Pfalz); Pawlikowski and Kruszynski, 1996:87 (Poland: Torun Basin); Schmid-Egger, Schmidt, and Doczkal, 1996:378 (Germany: Baden-Württemberg: not endangered); Voblenko, Gorobchishin, and Nesterov, 1996:15 (Ukraine: Polesye Region); Minoranskiy and Shkuratov, 1996:81 (Russia: Rostov Oblast'); Witt, 1996:106 (Germany: Brandenburg); Woydak, 1996:98 (Germany: Westfalen: summary of distribution and life history); Wu and Zhou, 1996:162 (revision in Economic Insect Fauna of China); Bitsch, Barbier, Gayubo, Schmidt, and Ohl, 1997:292 (in Sphecid Fauna of Western Europe); Hansen, 1997:189 (southeastern Norway, first country records); Madl, 1997:821 (Madagascar: Nosy Boraha Island), 822 (in checklist of Nosy Boraha Sphecidae); Schmidt and Schmid-Egger, 1997:26 (in checklist of German Sphecidae); Strohm and Linsenmair, 1997a:423 (more sons are produced when prey is restricted), 1997b:23 (minimum prey number to produce a daughter is three; smaller females produce more sons); Dollfuss, Gusenleitner, and Bregant, 1998:525 (Austria: summary of collecting records from Burgenland); Drewes, 1998:49 (Germany: Niedersachsen: Goldbeck 26 km WSW Hamburg); Jakubzik, Schlüter, and Cölln, 1998:1182, 1184 (Germany: Rheinland-Pfalz); Strohm and Linsenmair, 1998:330 (females produce more sons than daughters, regardless of weather conditions); Herrmann, 1999:7 (Germany: Niedersachsen: Oldenburg area; habitats size); Pauly, 1999:111 (in catalog of Belgian aculeates); Zehnder and Zettel, 1999:131 (Switzerland: recolonization of flooded area in Valais Canton).

Vespa fasciata Fourcroy, 1785:433.

Sphex maculatus Christ, 1791:287.

Vespa limbata Olivier, 1792. Synonymized with Philanthus triangulum by Kohl, 1891:365 (or an earlier author?).

Crabro androgynus Rossi, 1792:138. Synonymized with Philanthus apivorus by Spinola, 1806:96. – Curtis, 1829:pl.273 (illustration); Guérin-Méneville, 1835:pl. 71, Fig. 8 (illustrations of various morphological details), 1844:442 (explanations of his 1835 figure, androgynus is a junior synonym of triangulum).

Philanthus pictus Panzer, 1797. Synonymized with Philanthus apivorus by Spinola, 1806:96. – Fabricius, 1804:302 (redescription); Thunberg, 1815b:289 (diagnostic characters), 295 (redescription).

Philanthus discolor Panzer, 1799. Synonymized with Philanthus triangulum by Kohl, 1891:365 (or an earlier author?). – von Siebold, 1839:53 (Germany: Danzig, now Poland: Gdansk).

Philanthus apivorus Latreille, 1799:50, sex not indicated. Syntypes: Paris area (lost). Synonymized with Philanthus triangulum by Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, 1845:34 – Spinola, 1806:95 (Italy: Liguria); de Saussure, 1854:8 (belongs to a section with sessile gaster); Dusmet y Alonso, 1906:7 (Spain); Ferton, 1910:15t5 (sand closure of nest cell); Dusmet y Alonso, 1915:87 (Spain: Aragón); Lhéritier, 1946:28 (Morocco: Marrakech; life history); Casolari and Casolari Moreno, 1980:122 (specimens in M. Spinola collection).

Philanthus allionii Dahlbom, 1845:495, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) (as Allionii , incorrect original capitalization). Holotype or syntypes: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Prussia (depository?). Synonymized with Philanthus triangulum by Kohl, 1891:366 (or an earlier author?). – Dalla Torre, 1897:492 (in catalog of world Sphecidae, as allwini); de Beaumont, 1953h:197 (type material not represented in Dahlbom's collection in Lund).

ssp. abdelcader Lepeletier

Philanthus abdelcader Lepeletier, 1845:33, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) (as Abdelcader, incorrect original capitalization). Syntypes: Algeria: Oran (MNHN?). – Lucas, 1849:257 (Algeria; as Abdelkader), 1880:CXXXVII (Egypt: Ramlé near Alexandria); Girard, 1881:CXXVIII (Algeria: Palestro; pest of honeybee); Kohl, 1891:366 (as synonym of Philanthus triangulum); Roth, 1917:63 (nesting behavior, as abdelkader); Lhéritier, 1946:28 (Morocco: Marrakech; life history; as Abd-el-Kader); Bradley, 1957:49 (Lepeletier's specimens in Turin); Casolari and Casolari Moreno, 1980:122 (specimens in M. Spinola collection, as abdel-kader). – As Trachypus abdel-kader: Casolari and Casolari Moreno, 1980:122 (specimens in M. Spinola collection). – As Philanthus diadema var. abdelkader: Gribodo, 1880:400 (Tunisia); A. Costa, 1893b:8 (Tunisia); von Schulthess in Friederichs, 1918:48 (Madagascar: Antananarivo). – As Philanthus triangulum f. abdelkader: Balthasar, 1954b:279 (Palestine: Jerusalem and Jericho); – As Philanthus triangulum abdelcader: Mochi, 1939a:90 (Egypt; as Philanthus triangulum var. Abdelkader); de Beaumont, 1949b:180 (North Africa; revision), 1950f:396 (Algeria, Morocco), 1953g:118 (Morocco), 1956a:183 (Libya); Guiglia, 1957:144 (Italy: Isole Pelagie); de Beaumont and Bytinski-Salz, 1959:141 (Israel); de Beaumont, 1960b:229 (Libya), 1966:211 (Egypt: Abukir); Krombein, 1969a:8 (preying on honeybee in Egypt); Myartseva, 1972a:91 (Turkmenistan); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:566 (listed); Guichard, 1980:230; Pagliano and Scaramozzino, 1995:730 (Italy: Island of Lampedusa).

ssp. bimaculatus Magretti

Philanthus triangulum var. bimaculatus Magretti, 1908:188, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) (as bimaculatum, incorrect original termination). Syntypes: Kenya: Nairobi and Lumbwa (MNHN). – As Philanthus triangulum bimaculatus: R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:566 (listed).

ssp. diadema (Fabricius)

Crabro diadema Fabricius, 1781:471, sex not indicated. Holotype or syntypes: South Africa: Cape of the Good Hope (BMNH, Banks coll.). – Fabricius, 1787:297 (redescription), 1790:225 (redescription). – As Philanthus diadema: Fabricius, 1793:289 (new combination, redescription), 1804:302 (redescription); Thunberg, 1815a:127 (diagnostic characters), 129 (redescription), 1815b:287 (diagnostic characters); F. Smith, 1856:471 (listed); Radoszkowski, 1876b:137 (Egypt); Gribodo, 1884:8 (Egypt); de Saussure, 1892:534 (Madagascar); W. Schulz, 1911b:170 (Gribodo's specimen from Somalia is Philanthus triangulum); Schouteden, 1930:93 (Zaire); Casolari and Casolari Moreno, 1980:122 (specimens in M. Spinola collection). – As Philanthus triangulum var. diadema: Taschenberg, 1875:404 (Egypt); Gribodo, 1894:129 (Mozambique: Magnarra River), 1895:351 (Mozambique); Bingham, 1902:212 (South Africa, Malawi); Cameron, 1908a:269 (Tanzania: Mt. Kilimanjaro and Mt. Meru), 1910:145 (South Africa: Transvaal); Bischoff, 1912:225 (Zaire: Kassenge at Lake Edward); Arnold, 1925:144 (revision); Scott in Arnold, 1933a:369 (Ethiopia: Harar District); Bischoff, 1933:5 (Morocco); Giordani Soika, 1939c:101 (Eritrea: Asmara: Adi Caie); Guiglia, 1938:8 (Italy: Sardegna); Guiglia, 1940b:287 (Somalia); Leclercq, 1955i:408 (Burundi). – As Philanthus triangulum diadema: van der Vecht, 1961a:61 (discussion of type material); de Beaumont, 1967b:505 (South Africa: Natal); Bonelli, 1976:228 (nesting behavior); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:566 (listed); S. Gess, 1996:280 (floral records); Rodgers and Homewood, 1982:233 (Tanzania: Usambara Mountains).

Philanthus frontalis Gerstaecker in Peters, 1858:509, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Holotype or syntypes: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Mozambique: no specific locality (ZMHU). – Kohl, 1891:364 (listed);

Philanthus frontalis Gerstaecker, 1862:473, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Objective synonym of Philanthus frontalis Gerstaecker, 1858.

Philanthus transversus Cameron, 1910:147, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Holotype or syntypes: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes), South Africa: Transvaal: no specific locality (TMP). Synonymized with Philanthus triangulum diadema by Brauns, 1917:241.

ssp. obliteratus Pic

Philanthus obliteratus Pic, 1917. – As Philanthus triangulum obliteratus: R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:566 (listed).

 

PISON

 

Pison Jurine in Spinola, 1808:255. Type species: Pison jurini Spinola, 1808 [recte jurinei, = Alyson ater Spinola, 1808], by monotypy.

Tachybulus Latreille, 1809:75. Type species: Tachybulus niger Latreille, 1809 [= Alysson ater Spinola, 1808], by monotypy.

Nephridia Brullé, 1833b:408. Type species: Nephridia xanthopus Brullé, 1833, by monotypy.

Pisonitus Shuckard, 1838:79. Type species: Pison argentatum Shuckard, 1838, designated by Pate, 1937c:51.

Pisum Agassiz, 1846:293, junior homonym of Pisum Megerle, 1811. Unjustified emendation of Pison Jurine, 1808.

Pisonoides F. Smith, 1858:104 (authorship attributed to Shuckard, as subgenus of Pison). Type species: Pison obliteratum F. Smith, 1858, by monotypy.

Parapison F. Smith, 1869a:298. Type species: Pisonoides obliteratum F. Smith, 1858, designated by Pate, 1837c:47.

Pseudonysson Radoszkowski, 1876a:104. Type species: Pseudonysson fasciatus Radoszkowski, 1876, by monotypy.

Taranga W.F. Kirby, 1883:201. Type species: Taranga dubia W.F. Kirby, 1883 [= Pison spinolae Shuckard, 1838].

Paraceramius Radoszkowski, 1887c:432, junior homonym of Paraceramius de Saussure, 1854. Type species: Paraceramius koreensis Radoszkowski, 1887, by monotypy.

Pisum W. Schulz, 1906:212, junior homonym of Pisum Megerle, 1811 and Pisum Agassiz, 1846. Unjustified emendation of Pison Jurine, 1808.

Krombeiniellum Richards, 1962:118. Replacement name for Paraceramaius Radoszkowski, 1887.

Entomopison Menke, 1968a:5. Type species: Pison pilosum F. Smith, by original designation.

argentatum Shuckard

Pison argentatum Shuckard, 1838:79, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) (as argentatus, incorrect original termination). Holotype or syntypes: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Mauritius: no specific locality (OXUM?). – F. Smith, 1856:314 (listed); R. Turner, 1916g:594 (in key), 619 (revision); Casolari and Casolari Moreno, 1980:114 (specimens in M. Spinola collection); D. Baker, 1998:173 (type origin and depository). – As Pison argentatum: Kohl, 1885a:186 (listed); de Saussure, 1892:528 (Madagascar, redescription); Bingham, 1897:220 (redescription); R. Turner, 1911b:371 (Seychelles Islands); Bordage, 1912:32 (Isle of Réunion: life history, occasional cleptoparasitism using nests of Sceliphron hemipterum, now fuscum); Kohl in Bordage, 1912:86 (description of male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) ); R. Perkins, 1912:727 (introduced into Hawaiii); Maidl, 1924:234 (Sudan: Atbara), 1925a:390 (Indonesia: Sumatra); F. Williams, 1927:438 (makes little cells of mud); Swezey, 1942:185 (Guam, life history); Arnold, 1945:3 (Madagascar; in key); Krombein, 1949b:384 (in key to Sphecidae of Micronesia), 403 (diagnostic characters; Mariana and Caroline Islands), 1950b:139 (additional Micronesian localities); Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1956b:362 (Seychelles); Evans, 1957b:98 (larva); Yoshimoto, 1960:334 (Hawaiian Islands); Tsuneki, 1963c:11 (Thailand); Iwata, 1964b:374 (nesting behavior in Thailand); Yoshimoto, 1965:291 (nesting); Tsuneki, 1974b:636 (Thailand); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:335 (listed); Tsuneki, 1983a:89 (Philippines; taxonomic comments), 102 (in key); Madl, Matyot, and Schödl, 1996:832 (Seychelles Islands). – As Pisonitus argentatus: F. Smith:1869a:298 (new combination, in checklist of Pisonitus).

Pison fuscipalpe Cameron, 1901a:27, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Holotype or syntypes: Singapore (BMNH). Synonymized with Pison argentatum by R. Turner, 1916g:619.

Pisonitus argenteus Ashmead, 1904d:131, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Philippines: Bacoor (USNM). Synonymized with Pison argentatum by R. Turner, 1916g:619. – Ashmead, 1904d:150 (Philippines).

humile Arnold

Pison humile Arnold, 1945:5, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Bekily (MNHN). – Leclercq, 1960a:99 (Madagascar); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:336 (listed).

lobiferum Arnold

Pison lobiferum Arnold, 1945:6, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Bekily (MNHN). – R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:336 (listed).

mimicum Arnold

Pison mimicum Arnold, 1945:4, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Holotype: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes), Madagascar: Perinet (MNHN). – R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:336 (listed; misspelled minicum); Madl, 1997:820 (Madagascar: Nosy Boraha Island, as mimicus), 821 (in checklist of Nosy Boraha Sphecidae, as mimicus).

seyrigi Arnold

Pison seyrigi Arnold, 1945:3, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) (as Seyrigi, incorrect original spelling). Syntypes: Madagascar: Ivondro (MNHN). – R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:336 (listed); Madl, 1997:820 (Madagascar: Nosy Boraha Island), 821 (in checklist of Nosy Boraha Sphecidae).

 

PODALONIA

 

Podalonia Spinola, 1853:53. Suppressed by International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 1968:88 (Opinion 857).

Podalonia Fernald, 1927:11. Validated by International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 1968:88 (Opinion 857). Type species: Ammophila violaceipennis Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, 1845, designated by International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 1968:88 (Opinion 857).

Psammophila Dahlbom, 1842:2, junior homonym of Psammophila Brown, 1827. Type species: Psammophila affinis (W. Kirby, 1798) [= Ammophila affinis W. Kirby, 1798], designated by Fernald, 1927:11.

canescens madecassa (Kohl)

As Ammophila capensis de Saussure, 1892:438 (Madagascar), corrected to Ammophila madecassa by Kohl, 1909:372.

Ammophila madecassa Kohl, 1909:372, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Imerina (ZMHU or SIF). – As Sphex tydei race madecassa: Arnold, 1945:87 (Madagascar; new status); Leclercq, 1961d:106 (Madagascar, as var. madecassa). – As Podalonia canescens madecassa: R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:144 (new combination, listed).

 

POLEMISTUS

 

Polemistus de Saussure, 1892:565. Type species: Polemistus macilentus de Saussure, 1892, designated by Pate, 1937c:52.

Asiatomistus Tsuneki, 1992b:53. Not available: type species not designated (Article 13b).

Asiatomistus Tsuneki, 1993:38. Type species: Passaloecus barrabas Pagden, 1933, by original designation.

macilentus de Saussure

Polemistus macilentus de Saussure, 1892:567, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: Bezanozano Province: Anosibé (MHNG). – R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:185 (listed). – As Passaloecus macilentus: W. Schulz, 1911b:142 (new combination, redescription); Arnold, 1945:151 (Madagascar; revision); Leclercq, 1959a:50 (in key).

 

PRIONYX

 

Prionyx Vander Linden, 1827:362. Type species: Ammophila kirbii Vander Linden, 1827, by monotypy.

Priononyx Dahlbom, 1843:28. Type species: Pepsis thomae (Fabricius, 1804) [= Sphex thomae Fabricius, 1775], by monotypy.

Enodia Dahlbom, 1843:28, junior homonym of Enodia Hübner, 1819. Type species: Sphex albisectus Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau and Serville, 1828 [= Ammophila kirbii Vander Linden, 1827], designated by Kohl, 1885b:164.

Harpactopus F. Smith, 1856:264. Type species: Harpactopus crudelis F. Smith, designated by Patton, 1880a:384.

Parasphex F. Smith, 1856:267. Type species: Sphex albisectus Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau and Serville, 1828 [= Ammophila kirbii Vander Linden, 1827], designated by Kohl, 1885b:164.

Gastrosphaeria A. Costa, 1858:10. Type species: Gastrospheria anthracina A. Costa, 1858 [= Sphex subfuscatus Dahlbom, 1845], by monotypy.

Pseudosphex Taschenberg, 1869:420, junior homonym of Pseudosphex Hübner, 1818.. Type species: Pseudosphex pumilio Taschenberg, 1869, by monotypy.

Calosphex Kohl, 1890b:113. Type species: Sphex niveatus Dufour, 1853, designated by Pate, 1937c:15. – As Callosphex: Rohwer, 1913:450 (misspelling).

Neosphex Reed, 1894:627. Type species: Neosphex albospiniferus Reed, 1894, by monotypy.

crudelis (F. Smith)

Sphex rufipennis Fabricius, 1793:200, sex not indicated, primary homonym of Sphex rufipennis De Geer, 1778. Syntypes: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , India: Tamil Nadu: Tranquebar (ZMK). – Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, 1845:334 (revision); F. Smith, 1856:252 (listed, probably a Brazilian species); Taschenberg, 1869:411 (redescription based on specimens from Brazil); nec Kohl, 1885b:198; Ed. André, 1888:150 (in revision of Sphecidae of Europe and Algeria), 9* (bibliographic references); Cameron, 1889c:108 (listed), 112 (records from South America refer to a different species; specimens described by Kohl, 1885b:198, are luteipennis); Kohl, 1889a:26 (specimens treated under this name by André, 1888, are several species); Kohl, 1890:408 (as a variety of Sphex argentatus which = Sphex diabolicus); Casolari and Casolari Moreno, 1980:102 (specimens in M. Spinola collection). – As Sphex umbrosus var. rufipennis: Ashmead, 1904d:150 (Philippines).

? Sphex hirtipes Fabricius, 1793:207, sex not indicated. Holotype or syntypes: Guinea (depository?), primary homonym of Sphex hirtipes De Geer, 1778. Tentatively synonymized with Harpactopus crudelis by Kohl, 1890:351. – van der Vecht, 1961a:32 (type material lost, may be a synonym of Sphex obscurus); Casolari and Casolari Moreno, 1980:102 (specimens in M. Spinola collection).

Sphex aegyptius Lepeletier, 1845:356, sex not indicated (as Aegyptia, incorrect original capitalization and termination), primary homonym of Sphex aegyptius Linnaeus, 1758. Lectotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Egypt: no specific locality (Torino), designated by Menke in Bohart and Menke, 1976:133. – Taschenberg, 1869:412 (redescription, as aegyptica); Kohl, 1885b:181 (in revision of Palearctic Sphex); Ed. André, 1888:148 (in revision of Sphecidae of Europe and Algeria), 9* (bibliographic references); Cameron, 1889c:106 (listed); Kohl, 1889a:25 (comparison with Sphex subfuscatus); de Saussure, 1892:424 (Madagascar and Mauritius, redescription); Kohl, 1883e:183 (Tanzania: Bagamoyo); Bingham, 1897:245 (redescription); Kohl, 1906a:197 (Yemen: Aden), 1909:370 (Comoros); R. Turner, 1911b:370 (Seychelles Islands); Maidl, 1913:560 (Egypt: Helwan); Strand, 1916b:102 (German East Africa); Maidl, 1924:246 (Sudan: Bara, Gullfan); Berland, 1926c:200 (miscellaneous locality records); von Schulthess, 1927:299 (Iran: Bushehr); Schouteden, 1930:95 (Zaire); Gussakovskij, 1933b:278 (Iran); Giordani Soika, 1939c:105 (Eritrea: Asmara, as aegyptium); Berland, 1956:1169 (in revision of African Sphecini); Bradley, 1957:40 (Lepeletier's specimens in Turin); Georghiou, 1977:191 (Cyprus); Casolari and Casolari Moreno, 1980:103 (specimens in M. Spinola collection; as aegyptia). – As Priononyx aegyptia: F. Smith, 1856:266 (new combination, listed). – As Chlorion aegyptium: Arnold, 1928c:359 (revision); Scott in Arnold, 1933a:370 (Ethiopia); Arnold, 1935b:1 and 8 (Mauritania: Nema).

Harpactopus crudelis F. Smith, 1856:264, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Holotype or syntypes: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), India: Madras (BMNH). Synonymized with Sphex aegyptius Lepeletier by Kohl, 1885b:181, and with Sphex rufipennis Fabricius by van der Vecht, 1961a:34. – Magretti, 1883:249 (E Africa), 1884b:582 (Ethiopia: Metemma). – As Sphex crudelis: de Beaumont, 1949a:137 (Sphex crudelis, and not soror, is the correct name for aegyptius Lepeletier, nec Linnaeus), 1950d:7 (Egypt: Siwa oasis); Leclercq, 1955h:25 (bibliographic references, faunal records from Africa); de Beaumont, 1960a:5 (Greece: Rhodes Island), 1961e:2 (Iraq); Leclercq, 1961d:108 (Madagascar); de Beaumont, 1962c:221 (Arabia: Riyadh); Diniz, 1964b:237 (Guinea Bissau, redescription); de Beaumont, 1966:211 (Egypt: Abukir), 1967a:273 (Turkey), 1968b:149 (member of subfuscatus species group); Guiglia, 1968:164 (Yemen); de Beaumont, 1970c:4 (Iran: Khorassan); Erlandsson, 1974:58 (Greece); Kazenas, 1978b:41 (in key to Sphecidae of Kazakhstan and Central Asia). – As Prionyx crudelis: Myartseva, 1972a:84 (Turkmenistan); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:133 (listed); Guichard, 1988a:121 (Arabian Peninsula); Jha and Farooqi, 1994:11 (description and illustration of male genitalia).

Sphex grandis Radoszkowski, 1876b:132, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Holotype or syntypes: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes), Ethiopia: no specific locality (Kraków). Synonymized with Sphex aegyptius by Ed. André, 1888:*9.

? Sphex aegyptius var. turcomanicus Radoszkowski, 1893a:58, sex not indicated. Syntypes: Turkmenistan: Serax (Kraków).

 

PSEN

 

Psen Latreille, 1796:122 (no included species). Type species: Sphex ater Fabricius, 1794 [= Crabro ater Olivier, 1792], designated by Latreille, 1802b:338 (first included species).

Psenus Rafinesque, 1815:124. Emendation of Psen Latreille,1796.

Psenia Stephens, 1829b:361. Type species: Sphex ater Fabricius, 1794 [= Crabro ater Olivier, 1792], designated by Pate, 1937c:54.

Dahlbomia Wissmann, 1849:9. Type species: Sphex ater Fabricius, 1794 [= Crabro ater Olivier, 1792], by monotypy.

Mesopora Wesmael, 1852:279. Type species: Psen ater of Vander Linden, 1829 [= Sphex ater of Panzer, 1799 = Sphex ater Fabricius, 1794 = Crabro ater Olivier, 1792], by monotypy.

Caenopsen Cameron, 1899:55. Type species: Caenopsen fuscinervis Cameron, 1899, by monotypy.

leclercqi van Lith

Psen leclercqi van Lith, 1974a:53, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) . Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: no specific locality (FSAG). – van Lith, 1974a:96 (probable member of subgenus Psen), 98 (listed); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:629 (listed).

 

PSENEO

 

Pseneo Malloch, 1933:7. Type species: Psen kohlii W. Fox, 1898, by original designation.

madecassus Arnold

Psen madecassus Arnold, 1945:152, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Bekily, Ranomafana, Ivondro (MNHN). – Leclercq, 1961a:15 (listed), 1961d:117 (Madagascar); van Lith, 1974a:56 (supplementary descripiton), 97 (probably member of subgenus Punctipsen), 98 (listed); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:166 (listed). – As Pseneo madecassus: Budrys, 1988:109 (new combination).

 

PSENULUS

 

Psenulus Kohl, 1897:293. Type species: "Mimesa fuscipennis Dahlbom" [= Psen fuscipennis Dahlbom,1843], designated by Ashmead, 1899:224.

Neofoxia Viereck, 1901b:338. Type species: Psen atratus of Panzer, 1806 [= Trypoxylon atratum Fabricius, 1804 = Sphex pallipes Panzer, 1798], by original designation.

Stenomellinus W.Schulz, 1911b:142. Type species: Psen dilectus de Saussure, 1892, by monotypy.

Eopsenulus Gussakovskij, 1934b:84. Type species: Psenulus iwatai Gusssakovskij, 1934, by original designation.

Nipponopsen Yasumatsu, 1938:84. Type species: Nipponopsen anomoneure Yasumatsu, 1938, by original designation.

alboscutellatus Arnold

Psenulus reticulosus var. alboscutellatus Arnold, 1945:156, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Ivondro, Perinet, Ranomafana, Rogez (MNHN). – Leclercq, 1961a:30 (Madagascar: Analandraraka, Mandaraka). – As Psenulus alboscutellatus: R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:172 (listed).

dilectus (de Saussure)

Psen dilectus de Saussure, 1892:571, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Holotype or syntypes:female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , Madagascar: Imerina Province: no specific locality (MHNG). – As Psenulus dilectus: W. Schulz, 1911b:141 (new combination, redescription); Arnold, 1945:154 (Madagascar; redescription); Leclercq, 1961a:30 (listed), 1961d:117 (Madagascar); van Lith, 1974a:8 (diagnostic characters), 98 (member of capensis species group), 99 (listed); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:172 (listed).

fulgidus Arnold

Psenulus fulgidus Arnold, 1945:156, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Behara, Bekily, Ranomafana (MNHN). – Arnold, 1945:154 (in key); Leclercq, 1961a:30 (listed, Madagascar: Fort-Dauphin); van Lith, 1974a:69 (comparison with Psenulus reticulosus), 99 (listed); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:152 (listed).

reticulosus Arnold

Psenulus reticulosus Arnold, 1945:154, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Perinet, Rogez (MNHN). – Arnold, 1945:154 (in key); Leclercq, 1961a:30 (listed, Madagascar: Mandaraka), 1961d:117 (Madagascar); van Lith, 1974a:70 (supplementary description), 97 (closely related to Psenulus sapobaensis), 99 (listed); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:173 (listed).

 

PSEUDOPLISUS

 

Pseudoplisus Ashmead, 1899d:323. Type species: Gorytes floridanus W. Fox, 1891 [= Pseudoplisus smithii floridanus (W. Fox, 1891)], by original designation.

ranosahae (Arnold)

Gorytes ranosahae Arnold, 1945:54, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) (as Ranosahae, incorrect original capitalization). Syntypes: Madagascar: Ambositra, Ivondro, Rogez (MNHN). – Leclercq, 1960a:100 (Madagascar), 1961d:102 (Madagascar). – As Pseudoplisus ranosahae: R. Bohart in Bohart and Menke, 1976:503 (new combination); Leclercq, 1990b:119 (Madagascar); Callan, 1991d:1612 (life history).

 

RHOPALUM

 

Euplilis Risso, 1826:227. Type species: Euplilis rufiventris (Panzer, 1799) [= Crabro rufiventris Panzer, 1799 = Sphex clavipes Linnaeus, 1758], designated by Pate, 1935:246. Suppressed by International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 1978:237 (Opinion 1106).

Rhopalum Stephens, 1829a:34. Type species: Crabro rufiventris Panzer, 1799 [= Sphex clavipes Linnaeus, 1758], designated by J. Curtis, 1837:text accompanying plate 656. See also Stephens, 1829b:366 and J. Curtis, 1829:123.

Physoscelus Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau and Brullé, 1835:804. Type species: Crabro rufiventris Panzer, 1799 [= Sphex clavipes Linnaeus, 1758], designated by Westwood, 1839:80.

Corynopus Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau and Brullé, 1835:802. Type species: Crabro tibialis of Panzer, 1801 [= Crabro tibialis of Panzer, 1801 [= Crabro tibialis Fabricius, 1798 = Sphex coarctatus Scopoli, 1763], by monotypy.

Dryphus Herrich-Schaeffer, 1840:123. Type species: Crabro tibialis Fabricius, 1798 = Sphex coarctatus Scopoli, 1763], by monotypy.

Physoscelis Westwood, 1839:80. Lapsus or emendation of Physoscelus Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau and Brullé, 1835.

Alliognathus Ashmead, 1899d:219. Type species: Crabro occidentalis W. Fox, 1895, by original designation. Synonymized with Corynopus by Court and R. Bohart in Bohart and Menke, 1975:47.

Calceorhopalum Tsuneki, 1952b:111. Type species: Rhopalum calceatum (Tsuneki, 1947) [= Crabro calceatus Tsuneki, 1947, primary homonym of Crabro calceatus Rossi, 1794 = Rhopalum pygidiale R. Bohart, 1976], by original designation.

Latrorhopalum Tsuneki, 1952b:111. Type species: Rhopalum latronum (Kohl, 1915) [= Crabro latronum, by original designation.

Aporhopalum Leclercq, 1955k:3. Type species: Rhopalum perforator F. Smith, 1876, by original designation.

Zelorhopalum Leclercq, 1955k:4. Type species: Rhopalum aucklandi Leclercq, 1955, by original designation.

Notorhopalum Leclercq, 1979b:354, as subgenus of Rhopalum. Type species: Rhopalum carnegiacum Leclercq, 1979, by original designation and monotypy.

ichneumoniforme (Arnold)

Thyreopus ichneumoniformis Arnold, 1927:130, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) . Syntypes: South Africa: Cape Province: Mossel Bay (BMNH). – As Crabro ichneumoniformis: Arnold, 1945:169 (Madagascar). – As Rhopalum ichneumoniforme: Leclercq, 1954c:185 (new combination, listed); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:389 (listed).

 

SCELIPHRON

 

Sceliphron Klug, 1801:561. Type species: Sphex spirifex Linnaeus, 1758, designated by Bingham, 1897:235.

Pelopoeus Latreille, 1802b:334. Type species: Pelopoeus spirifex, Fab." [= Pelopoeus spirifex of Fabricius, 1804 = Sphex spirifex Linnaeus, 1758], designated by Latreille, 1810:438.

Pelopaeus Latreille, 1804:180. Lapsus or emendation of Pelopoeus.

Sceliphrum W. Schulz, 1906:192. Emendation of Sceliphron Klug, 1801.

Prosceliphron van der Vecht in van der Vecht and van Breugel, 1968:192, junior homonym of Prosceliphron Frenguelli, 1946. Type species: Sceliphron coromandelicum (Lepeletier, 1845) [= Pelopaeus coromandelicus Lepeletier, 1845], by original designation.

Hensenia Pagliano and Scaramozzino, 1990:5. Replacement name for Prosceliphron van der Vecht, 1968. May by unnecessary because Prosceliphron Frenguelli, 1946 is in doubt under Article 13 (Menke, 1990:29).

fuscum Klug

Sphex hemipterus Fabricius, 1798:244, sex not indicated, primary homonym of Sphex hemipterus Scopoli, 1772. Lectotype: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) , "Isle de France" (MNHN, coll. Bosc), designated by van der Vecht, 1961a:43 (use of word "type"). – As Pelopaeus hemipterus: Fabricius, 1804:204 (new combination, redescription); Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, 1845:311 (revision, recorded from France); F. Smith, 1856:229 (listed); Casolari and Casolari Moreno, 1980:101 (specimens in M. Spinola collection). – As Sceliphron hemipterum: de Saussure, 1892:440 (Madagascar); Pérez, 1895b:210 (Seychelles Islands); Cameron, 1907e:75 (Seychelles Islands; redescritpion); Kohl, 1909:371 (Madagascar); Turner, 1911b:369 (Seychelles Islands); Bordage, 1912:45 (Réunion Island: use of provisioned nests by Pison argentatum), 68 (Réunion Island: life history); R. Turner, 1919b:238 (New Caledonia); Kohl, 1918:108 (revision); Friederichs, 1918:30 (life history); von Schulthess in Friederichs, 1918:48 (Madagascar: Antananarivo, Diego Suarez); Arnold, 1945:86 (Madagascar); Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1950:75 (Seychelles Islands; nesting behavior); Leclercq, 1953b:211 (Madagascar); Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1956b:362 (Seychelles); Leclercq, 1961d:106 (Madagascar); van der Vecht and van Breugel, 1968:237 (revision), 254 (hemipterum is invalid junior homonym).

Sceliphron fuscum Klug, 1801:566, sex not indicated. Holotype or syntypes: "Isle de France" (ZMHU). – Strand, 1915:91 (as synonym of Sceliphron coromandelicum; authorship attributed to Lepeletier); van der Vecht and van Breugel, 1968:237 (as synonym of Sceliphron hemipterum); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:105 (listed); Madl, Matyot, and Schödl, 1996:831 (Seychelles Islands); Madl, 1997:820 (Madagascar: Nosy Boraha Island), 821 (in checklist of Nosy Boraha Sphecidae).

Sceliphron quodi Vachal, 1907:144, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: New Caledonia: no specific locality (MNHN). Synonymized with Sceliphron hemipterum by van der Vecht and van Breugel, 1968:237. – Vachal, 1908:23 (New Caledonia); Kohl, 1918:138 (original description copied).

SOLIERELLA

Solierella Spinola, 1851a:349. Type species: Solierella chilensis Spinola, 1851, by monotypy.

Sylaon Piccioli, 1869a:pl. 1. Type species: Silaon compeditus Piccioli, 1869, by monotypy.

Silaon Piccioli, 1869b:283. Lapsus or emendation of Sylaon Piccioli, 1869.

Niteliopsis S. Saunders, 1873:410. Type species: Niteliopsis pisonoides S. Saunders, 1873, by monotypy. Gender: feminine (Article 30a of the Code).

Ammosphecidium Kohl, 1878:701. Type species: Ammosphecidium helleri Kohl, 1878 [= Silaon compeditus Piccioli, 1869], by monotypy.

Lautara Herbst, 1920a:217. Type species: Lautara jaffueli Herbst, 1920, by monotypy.

madagascariensis Arnold

Solierella madagascariensis Arnold, 1945:139, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Bekily (MNHN). – R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:313 (listed); Lomholdt, 1985:54 (revision); Leclercq, 1990b:117 (Madagascar); Hancock, Chahwanda, and Mhlanga, 1995:39 (paratypes in Bulawayo Museum).

pallidipes Arnold

Solierella pallidipes Arnold, 1945:140, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Bekily (MNHN). – Leclercq, 1960a:98 (Madagascar); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:313 (listed); Lomholdt, 1985:56 (revision); Hancock, Chahwanda, and Mhlanga, 1995:39 (paratypes in Bulawayo Museum).

 

SPHECIUS

 

Sphecius Dahlbom, 1843:154. Type species: Sphecius speciosus Dahlbom, 1843 (secondary homonym of Sphecius speciosus (Drury, 1773)) [= Sphex specious Drury, 1773], by monotypy.

Hogardia Dufour, 1841:228. Type species: Hogardia dufourrii Dufour, 1841, by monotypy. Not available: published in synonymy of Stizus nigricornis (Article 11e).

Hogardia Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, 1845:288. Type species: Hogardia rufescens Lepeletier, 1845 [= Stizus hogardi Latreille, 1806, by tautonymy (Article 68d)].

Sphecienus Patton, 1879c:345. Type species: Stizus nigricornis Dufour, 1838, by original designation

Nothosphecius Pate, 1936d:199. Type species: Stizus grandidieri de Saussure, 1887, by original designation.

grandidieri (de Saussure)

Stizus grandidieri de Saussure, 1887:9, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) (as Grandidieri, incorrect original capitalization). Holotype or syntypes: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , Madagascar: no specific locality (MNHN). – de Saussure, 1892:463 (Madagascar). – As Sphecius grandidieri: Handlirsch, 1895:958 (new combination; redescription); Kohl, 1909:373 (Madagascar: Toliara); Arnold, 1945:67 (Madagascar; redescription); Evans, 1966d:111 (synopsis of known behavior); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:511 (listed); Leclercq, 1990b:119 (Madagascar).

Sphecius freyi Handlirsch, 1891:27, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) (as Freyi, incorrect original capitalization) (possibly 1892). Syntypes: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: Nosibé (NHMW). Synonymized with Sphecius grandidieri by de Saussure, 1892:463.

 

SPHEX

 

Sphex Linnaeus, 1758:569. Type species: Sphex flavipennis Fabricius, 1793, designated by International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 1946:571 (Opinion 180) which reversed its earlier designation as type of Sphex sabulosus Linnaeus, 1758 (1911:76, Opinion 32).

Sphaex Scopoli, 1772:122. Lapsus or emendation of Sphex Linnaeus, 1758.

Ammobia Billberg, 1820:105. Type species Pepsis argentata (Fabricius, 1804) [= Sphex argentatus Fabricius, 1787], designated by Rohwer, 1911c:153

Proterosphex Fernald, 1905:163. Type species: Sphex maxillosus Fabricius, 1793, junior homonym of Sphex maxillosus Poiret, 1787 [= Sphex funerarius Gussakovskij, 1934].

Fernaldina R. Bohart and Menke, 1963:130. Type species: Sphex lucae de Saussure, 1867. By monotypy.

fumicatus voeltzkowii Kohl

Sphex umbrosus var. voeltzkowii Kohl, 1909:370, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) (as Voeltzkowii, incorrect original capitalization). Syntypes: Madagascar: Tamatave, now Toamasina (ZMHU or SIF). – As Chlorion umbrosum var. Voeltzkowi: Arnold, 1945:89 (Madagascar; redescription). – As Sphex umbrosus voeltzkowi: Leclercq, 1961d:108 (Madagascar). – As Sphex fumicatus voeltzkowii: R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:115 (listed).

malagassus de Saussure

Sphex malagassus de Saussure, 1890:pl. 18, fig. 38, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) . Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), illustrated specimen, Madagascar: no specific locality (MHNG). – Berland, 1927:153 (Madagascar); Leclercq, 1953b:211 (Madagascar); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:115 (listed).

Sphex malagassus de Saussure, 1891:259, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Objective synonym of Sphex malagassus de Saussure, 1890 .

Sphex malagassus de Sausure, 1892:259, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Objective synonym of Sphex malagassus de Saussure, 1890. – Leclercq, 1961d:108 (Madagascar); Madl, 1997:820 (Madagascar: Nosy Boraha Island), 821 (in checklist of Nosy Boraha Sphecidae). – As Chlorion malagassum: Arnold, 1945:89 (new combination, Madagascar, redescription).

torridus F. Smith

Sphex torridus F. Smith, 1873c:291, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) (as torrida, incorrect original termination). Syntypes: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , Madagascar: no specific locality (BMNH). – de Saussure, 1892:426 (Madagascar, redescription); Kohl, 1909:370 (Comoros, Madagascar, Mozambique Channel); Turner, 1911b:369 (Seychelles Islands); von Schulthess in Friederichs, 1918:48 (Madagascar: Antananarivo); Berland, 1927:153 (Madagascar); Leclercq, 1953b:211 (Madagascar); Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1956b:362 (Seychelles); Leclercq, 1961d:108 (Madagascar); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:117 (listed); Madl, 1997:820 (Madagascar: Nosy Boraha Island), 821 (in checklist of Nosy Boraha Sphecidae). – As Chlorion torridum: Arnold, 1945:90 (Madagascar; redescription).

 

SPILOMENA

 

Celia Shuckard, 1837:182. Type species: Celia troglodytes (Vander Linden, 1829) [= Stigmus troglodytes Vander Linden], by original designation and monotypy. Junior homonym of Celia Zimmermann, 1832.

Spilomena Shuckard, 1838:79. Replacement name for Celia Shuckard, 1837.

Microglossa Rayment, 1930:212. Type species: Microglossa longifrons Rayment, by original designation. Junior homonym of Microglossa Voight, 1831.

Microglossella Rayment, 1935:634. Replacement name for Microglossa Rayment, 1930.

Taialia Tsuneki, 1971j:10. Type species: Taialia formosana Tsuneki, 1971, by original designation and monotypy. Synonymized with Spilomena by R. Bohart in R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:41.

seyrigi Arnold

Spilomena seyrigi Arnold, 1945:142, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) (as Seyrigi, incorrect original capitalization). Syntypes: Madagascar: Bekily (MNHN). – Leclercq, 1959a:33 (in key), 34 (Madagascar: Ankaratra); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:193 (listed); Leclercq, 1990b:120 (Madagascar).

 

STIZOIDES

 

Stizoides Guérin-Méneville, 1844:438 (as subgenus of Stizus). Type species: Larra fasciata Fabricius, 1798 (secondary homonym of Stizus fasciatus (Fabricius, 1798)) [= Sphex assimilis Fabricius, 1787], designated by J. Parker, 1929:10.

Omphalius Vachal, 1900a:534, junior homonym of Omphalius Philippi, 1847. Type species: Omphalius niger Vachal, 1900a:535 [= Stizoides niger (Radoszkowski, 1881:208)], by monotypy.

Scotomphales Vachal, 1900a:843. Replacement name for Omphalius Vachal, 1900a:534.

Scotomphales Vachal, 1900b:233. Replacement name for Omphalius Vachal, 1900a:534.

Tachystizus Minkiewicz, 1934:251. Not available: type species not designated (Article 13b).

Tachystizus Pate, 1937c:63. Type species: Crabro tridentatus Fabricius, 1775, by original designation. Validation of Tachystizus Minkeiwicz, 1934.

cyanipennis (de Saussure)

Stizus cyanipennis de Saussure, 1887:9, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Holotype or syntypes: Madagascar: no specific locality (MHNG). – Handlirsch, 1892:106 (revision), 1895:188 (redescription); Dalla Torre, 1897:523 (listed); Arnold, 1945:77 (Madagascar; revision). – As Stizolarra cyanipennis: de Saussure, 1892:470 (Madagascar, redescription). – As Stizoides cyanipennis: Leclercq, 1961d:103 (Madagascar, new combination); Gillaspy, 1963a:378 (listed, in subgenus Stizoides s.s.); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:528 (listed); Leclercq, 1990b:119 (Madagascar; specimen in MNHN erroneously regarded as holotype agrees with Arnold's 1945 redescription); Ohl, 1999a:88 (in revision of the genus).

 

STIZUS

 

Stizus Latreille, 1802b:344. Type species: "Stizus ruficornis" Fabr. [= Bembix ruficornis Fabricius, 1787 (secondary homonym of Vespa ruficornis J. Forster, 1771) = Vespa ruficornis J. Forster, 1771, designated by Blanchard, 1846:pl.121.

Larra Fabricius sensu Klug, 1845:pl. 46 and text (in part). R. Bohart and Menke (1976:53) commented as follows: Larra Fabricius contained unrelated species of sphecids as well as a scoliid and a tiphiid. Latreille (1802b) recognized the conglomerate nature of the genus and restricted Larra to wasps now placed in the Larrinae. He established the new genus Stizus for the remaining sphecids of Fabricius' Larra. Klug and F. Smith both restricted Larra to species assigned by other authors to Latreille's Stizus. F. Smith (1856:273-274, 337) went so far as to designate a type species for Larra, although his designation was antedated by that of Latreille, 1810 and others. Species placed in Larra By Klug and F. Smith are now assigned to Stizus, Stizoides, and Bembecinus.

Larra Fabricius sensu F. Smith, 1856:337 (in part).

Megastizus Patton, 1879c:344. Type species: Stizus brevipennis Walsh, 1869, by original designation.

Stizolarra de Saussure, 1887:9. Type species: Sphex vespiformis Fabricius, 1775, designated by Pate 1937c:62.

Megalostizus W. Schulz, 1906:199. Emendation of Megastizus Patton, 1879.

berlandi Arnold

Stizus berlandi Arnold, 1945:76, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) (as Berlandi, incorrect original capitalization). Syntypes: Madagascar: Bekily, Ranomafana (MNHN). – R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:526 (listed); Hancock, Chahwanda, and Mhlanga, 1995:39 (syntype in Bulawayo Museum).

 

TACHYSPHEX

 

Tachysphex Kohl, 1883a:166. Type species: Tachysphex filicornis Kohl, 1883 [= Tachytes fugax Radoszkowski, 1877], designated by Bingham, 1897:192.

Schistosphex Arnold, 1922:137. Type species: Schistosphex breijeri Arnold, 1922, by original designation and monotypy.

Atelosphex Arnold, 1923a:177. Type species: Atelosphex miscophoides Arnold, 1923, by original designation and monotypy.

ambositrae Leclercq

Tachysphex ambositrae Leclercq, 1967b:67, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: Ambositra (MNHN). – R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:272 (listed).

anceps Arnold

Tachysphex anceps Arnold, 1945:102, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: Bekily (MNHN). – R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:272 (listed).

bruneiceps Arnold

Tachysphex bruneiceps Arnold, 1923a:153, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: Zimbabwe: Sawmills and Plumtree (SAM). – Arnold, 1930:3 (listed), 1945:97 (Madagascar), 1951:155 (Ethiopia: River Hawash); Leclercq, 1960a:98 (Madagascar), 1961d:109 (Madagascar); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:273 (listed); Leclercq, 1990b:117 (Madagascar: Tamatave); Hancock, Chahwanda, and Mhlanga, 1995:40 (syntypes in Bulawayo Museum); Madl, 1997:821 (in checklist of Nosy Boraha Sphecidae).

crassicornis Arnold

Tachysphex crassicornis Arnold, 1945:105, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Bekily, Ranomafana (MNHN). – R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:273 (listed); Leclercq, 1990b:117 (Madagascar: Bekily).

excisus Arnold

Tachysphex dimidiatus de Sausssure, 1892:483, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) , secondary homonym of Tachysphex dimidiatus (Panzer, 1809). Holotype: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) , Madagascar: Bezanozano: Anosibé (MHNG). – Leclercq, 1960a:98 (Madagascar), 1961d:111 (Madagascar).

Tachysphex dimidiatus var. excisus Arnold, 1945:104, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Behara, Bekily (MNHN). Tentatively synonymized with Tachysphex dimidiatus de Saussure by Menke in Bohart and Menke, 1976:273. – Leclercq, 1960:198 (Madagascar). – As Tachysphex excisus: Menke in Bohart and Menke, 1976:273 (new status); Leclercq, 1990b:117 (Madagascar: Ihosy, Tamatave, Tsimbazaza).

halictiformis Arnold

Tachysphex halictiformis Arnold, 1945:100, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) . Syntypes: Madagascar: Bekily (MNHN). – Leclercq, 1960a:98 (Madagascar), 1961d:111 (Madagascar); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:274 (listed); Leclercq, 1990b:117 (Madagascar: Bekily, Fampanambo).

insulsus Arnold

Tachysphex insulsus Arnold, 1945:104, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Antanimora, Bekily (MNHN). – R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:274 (listed).

micromegas de Saussure

Tachysphex micromegas de Saussure, 1892:481, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: Bezanozano Province: Anosibé, and Imerina Province: no specific locality (MHNG). – R. Turner, 1911b:370 (Seychelles Islands); Arnold, 1945:102 (redescription); 1960a:98 (Madagascar, comparison with Tachysphex perniger), Leclercq, 1961d:111 (Madagascar); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:274 (listed); Leclercq, 1990b:118 (Madagascar: faunal records).

Tachysphex sikorae de Saussure, 1892: pl. 27, fig. 2 (as Sikorae, incorrect original capitalization). Objective synonym of Tachysphex micromegas. Synonymized with Tachysphex micromegas by Menke in Bohart and Menke, 1976:274.

perniger Arnold

Tachysphex perniger Arnold, 1947:166, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Antsirabe (MNHN). – Leclercq, 1960a:98 (comparison with Tachysphex micromegas), 99 (Madagascar); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:275 (listed).

scaurus Arnold

Tachysphex scaurus Arnold, 1945:98, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Bekily, Ihosy (MNHN). – Leclercq, 1961d:110 (Madagascar); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:276 (listed).

sericeus flavofimbriatus Arnold

Tachysphex fluctuatus var. flavofimbriatus Arnold, 1945:97, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Holotype: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes), Madagascar: Bekily (MNHN). – Leclercq, 1960a:98 (Madagascar: Bekily). – As Tachysphex fluctuatus flavofimbriatus: R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:276. (listed).

sexinus Leclercq

Tachysphex sexinus Leclercq, 1961d:111, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Holotype: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes), Madagascar: Ranomafana (MHNB). – R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:276 (listed).

seyrigi Arnold

Tachysphex seyrigi Arnold, 1945:99, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) (as Seyrigi, incorrect original capitalization). Syntypes: Madagascar: Bekily (MNHN). – Leclercq, 1960a:99 (Madagascar), 1961d:110 (Madagascar); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:276 (listed); Leclercq, 1990b:118 (Madagascar: Bekily).

suavis Arnold

Tachysphex suavis Arnold, 1929c:385, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Zimbabwe: Bulawayo (SAM). – Arnold, 1930:3 (listed), 1945:97 (Madagascar); Leclercq, 1961d:109 (Madagascar); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:277 (listed); Leclercq, 1990b:118 (Madagascar: Fort Dauphin).

subcoriaceus Arnold

Tachysphex subcoriaceus Arnold, 1945:98, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) . Holotype: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes), Madagascar: Ranomafana (MNHN). – Leclercq, 1961d:109 (description of female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes); Madagascar); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:277 (listed); Leclercq, 1990b:118 (Madagascar: Nosy-Komba).

subeditus Leclercq

Tachysphex subeditus Leclercq, 1961d:109, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes), female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Holotype: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes), Madagascar: Toamasina: Foulpointe, now Mahavelona (MHNB). – R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:277 (listed).

villosus Arnold

Tachysphex villosus Arnold, 1947:164, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , Madagascar: Bekily (MNHN). – R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:277 (listed).

 

TACHYTES

 

Tachytes Panzer, 1806:129. Type species: Pompilus tricolor of Fabricius, 1798 [= Sphex tricolor Fabricius, 1793 (primary homonym of Sphex tricolor Schrank, 1781) = Sphex tricoloratus Turton, 1801 = Tachytes obsoletus tricoloratus (Turton, 1801)], by monotypy.

Lyrops Illiger, 1807a:162. Type species: Andrena etrusca Rossi, 1790, by monotypy. See also Illiger, 1807b:195.

Tachyptera Dahlbom, 1843:133. Type species: Apis obsoleta Rossi, 1792, designated by Patton, 1880b:391. Junior homonum of Tachyptera Berge, 1842.

Holotachytes R. Turner, 1917d:10. Type species: Tachytes dichrous F. Smith, 1856, by original designation.

Calotachytes R. Turner, 1917d:10. Type species: Tachytes marshalli R. Turner, 1912, by original designation.

Tachyoides Banks, 1942:397. Type species: Tachytes mergus W. Fox, 1892, by original designation.

Tachyplena Banks, 1942:397. Replacement name for Tachyptera Dahlbom, 1843. Tachyplena can be also regarded as a new genus name because Banks designated Tachytes mandibularis Patton, 1880, as type species (Bohart and Menke, 1976:44).

Tachynana Banks, 1942:398. Type species: Tachytes obscurus Cresson, 1872 [= Tachytes chrysopyga obscurus Cresson, 1872], by original designation.

argyropis de Saussure

Tachytes argyropis de Saussure, 1887:18, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) . Holotype or syntypes: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: no specific locality (MHNG). – de Saussure, 1892:476 (Madagascar, redescription); Kohl, 1909:372 (Madagascar: Imerina, Toamasina, Toliara); von Schulthess in Friederichs, 1918:47 (Madagascar: Antananarivo); Arnold, 1945:108 (Madagascar; revision); Leclercq, 1960a:99 (Madagascar), 1961d:111 (Madagascar); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:263 (listed); Leclercq, 1990b:118 (Madagascar).

copiosus Arnold

Tachytes copiosus Arnold, 1945:111, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) (as copiosa, incorrect original termination). Syntypes: Madagascar: Behara (MNHN). – R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:264 (listed).

flavocinereus Arnold

Tachytes flavocinereus Arnold, 1945:112, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) (as flavocinerea, incorrect original termination). Syntypes: Madagascar: Antanimora, Bekily, and Ivondro (MNHN). – Leclercq, 1961d:112 (Madagascar). – As Tachytes flavocinereus: R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:265 (listed); Leclercq, 1990b:118 (Madagascar).

indifferens Arnold

Tachytes indifferens Arnold, 1945:110, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Behara, Bekily (MNHN). – Leclercq, 1960a:99 (Madagascar), 1961d:111 (Madagascar); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:265 (listed); Leclercq, 1990b:118 (Madagascar); Madl, 1997:820 (Madagascar: Nosy Boraha Island), 821 (in checklist of Nosy Boraha Sphecidae).

oviventris de Saussure

Tachytes oviventris de Saussure, 1891:260, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Holotype or syntypes: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: no specific locality (MHNG). – Arnold, 1945:109 (no specimens studied); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:266 (listed).

Tachytes oviventris de Saussure, 1892:478, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Objective synonym of Tachytes oviventris de Saussure, 1891.

picticornis Arnold

Tachytes picticornis Arnold, 1945:111, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Antanimora, Bekily (MNHN). – R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:266 (listed); Leclercq, 1990b:118 (Madagascar).

rufomarginatus Arnold

Tachytes rufomarginatus Arnold, 1945:109, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes), female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) (as rufomarginata, incorrect original termination). Syntypes: Madagascar: Bekily (MNHN). – As Tachytes rufomarginatus: R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:266 (listed).

 

TRYPOXYLON

 

Trypoxylon Latreille, 1796:121, no included species. Type species: Sphex figulus Linnaeus, 1758, designated by Latreille, 1802b:339 (first included species).

Tripoxilon Spinola, 1806:65. Lapsus or emendation of Trypoxylon Latreille, 1796.

Apius Panzer, 1806:106. Type species: Sphex figulus of Panzer, 1801 [= Sphex figulus Linnaeus, 1758, by monotypy.

Apius Jurine, 1807:140, junior homonym of Apius Panzer, 1806. Type species: Sphex figulus of Fabricius, 1775 [= Sphex figulus Linnaeus, 1758], designated by Morice and Durrant, 1915:394.

Trypoxilon Jurine, 1807:141 and tableau comparatif, p. 2. Lapsus or emendation of Trypoxylon Latreille, 1796.

Trypoxylum Agassiz, 1846:380. Unjustified emendation of Trypoxylon Latreille, 1796.

Trypoxylum W. Schulz, 1906:212, junior homonym of Trypoxylum Agassiz, 1846. Unjustified emendation of Trypoxylon Latreille, 1796.

Trypargilum Richards, 1934:191. Type species: Trypoxylon nitidum F. Smith, 1856, by original designation.

Asaconoton Arnold, 1959:322. Type species: Trypoxylon egregium Arnold, 1959, by original designation.

cataractae madecassum Arnold

Trypoxylon cataractae madecassum Arnold, 1945:9, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) . Syntypes: Madagascar: Ranomafana (MNHN). – R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:345 (listed); Tsuneki, 1981d:83 (Madagascar; additional description); Madl, 1997:820 (Madagascar: Nosy Boraha Island), 821 (in checklist of Nosy Boraha Sphecidae).

errans de Saussure

Trypoxylon errans de Saussure, 1867:84, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Holotype or syntypes: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Mauritius Island or Brazil: no specific locality, actually Mauritius (NHMW or MHNG). – de Saussure, 1892:527 (Mauritius Island, redescription); R. Turner, 1911b:372 (Seychelles Islands); Bordage, 1912:58 (Isle of Réunion, life history); von Schulthess in Friederichs, 1918:48 (Madagascar: Diego Suarez); Richards, 1934:338 (member of scutatum species group), 344 (life history summary); Arnold, 1945:7 (in key); Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1956b:362 (Seychelles); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:346 (listed); Tsuneki, 1978b:79 and 81 (in key), 1979a:13, 15, 17 (in key), 114 (Mauritius Island, Rodrigues Island, Seychelles, Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Malaya), 1979b:5 (in key), 20 (Sri Lanka), 1979c:5, 9 (in key), 28 (Indonesia: Java, Sumatra, Sumba), 1980a:11 (in key), 87 (Sulawesi), 1980b:11, 12 (in key), 115 (Philippines), 1981a:6 (in key), 45 (Guam, Hawaii; additional description), 1981c:8, 9 (in key), 42 (Taiwan; additional description), 1981d:17 (Sri Lanka), 29 (India, Singapore, Thailand), 49 (Burma), 78 (Hong Kong), 85 (Tanzania: Zanzibar; additional description), 20, 62 (in key), 1981e:4, 6-8 (in key), 59 (Japan; additional description), 1981f:56 (member of errans species group); Madl, Matyot, and Schödl, 1996:833 (Seychelles Islands); Wu and Zhou, 1996:103 (revision in Economic Insect Fauna of China).

Trypoxylon intrudens F. Smith, 1870:188, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Lectotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), India: North-West Provinces, now Uttar Pradesh: Mainpuri (BMNH), designated with Trypoxylon errans by Tsuneki, 1978b:28. Synonymized with Trypoxylon errans by Tsuneki, 1978b:28. – Kohl, 1885a:205 (listed); Cameron, 1889c:119 (listed) and 123 (diagnostic characters); Bingham, 1896a:441 (references), 1897:224 (redescription); Green, 1903:68 (nesting in all available holes); Paiva, 1907:15 (India: Mussoorie); Bingham, 1908:355 (India: Purneah); Richards, 1934:315 (member of figulus species group); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:346 (listed); Tsuneki, 1978b:28 (redescription); Pu, 1986:8 (China).

Trypoxylon canaliculatum Cameron, 1889c:122, sex non indicated. Lectotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , India: Barrackpore or Tirhoot or Mussoorie Hills (OXUM), designated by Tsuneki, 1978b:38. Synonymized with Trypoxylon errans by Tsuneki, 1978b:38. – Bingham, 1897:225 (redescription); Cameron, 1889c:118 (listed); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:345 (listed).

Trypoxylon geniculatum Cameron, 1902f:313, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) . Lectotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , India: Assam: Khasia Hills (BMNH), designated by Tsuneki, 1978b:46. Synonymized with Trypoxylon errans by Tsuneki, 1978b:46. – Richards, 1934:315 (member of figulus species group); Begum, Bose, and Howlander, 1989:126 (life history in Bangladesh); Begum, Khan, and Bose, 1995:176 (Bangladesh: Dhaka University Campus).

Trypoxylon philippinense Ashmead, 1904c:283, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes)(as Philippinense, incorrect original capitalization). Holotype: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes), Philippines: Luzon: Manila (USNM). Synonymized with Trypoxylon errans by Tsuneki, 1978b:72. – F. Williams, 1927 (nesting in hollow twigs), 1931:236 (nesting in hollow twigs); Richards, 1934:343 (life history summary); Krombein, 1949b:381 (in key to Sphecidae of Micronesia), 400 (Marshall Islands); Yoshimoto, 1960:333 (Hawaiian Islands).

Trypoxylon gardineri Cameron, 1907e:76, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) . Syntypes: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , Seychelles Islands: Coetivy (BMNH). Synonymized with Trypoxylon errans by R. Turner, 1911b:372. – Tsuneki, 1978b:60 (study of syntypes).

Trypoxylon ornatipes Cameron, 1913:24, "male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) " = female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , primary homonym of Trypoxylon ornatipes Cameron, 1889, and of Trypoxylon ornatipes W. Fox, 1891. Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , India: (BMNH). Synonymized with Trypoxylon errans by Tsuneki, 1978b:60. – Richards, 1934:315 (member of figulus species group).

Trypoxylon pulawskii Tsuneki, 1956g:22, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Japan: Honshu: Utsunomiya (originally K. Tsuneki coll., now Hyogo Mus.). Synonymized with Trypoxylon errans by Tsuneki, 1981e:59. – Tsuneki, 1956g:4, 8 (in key), 1966a:22 (Japan: Osaka), 1969e:25 (Japan), 1970d:13 (life history), 1973e:32 (in key), 1973d:150 (Japan: Saitama Prefecture), 1973e:36 (in key), 1975b:63 (Japan: Saitama Prefecture); Tano, 1994b:43 (holotype in K. Tsuneki collection); Hashimoto and Nakanishi, 1997:23 (holotype transferred to Hyogo Mus.).

Trypoxylon tanoi Tsuneki, 1967d:13, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes), female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Holotype: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes), Taiwan: Pingtun Prefecture: Fenglian (originally K. Tsuneki coll., now USNM). Synonymized with Trypoxylon errans by Tsuneki, 1978b:72. – Haneda, 1971b:30 (Taiwan); Tsuneki, 1971g:7 (Taiwan); Haneda, 1972:4 (Taiwan); Murota, 1973b:117 (Taiwan); Tsuneki, 1973f:44 (Taiwan), 1974b:630 (Thailand; discussion); Nuhn and Menke, 1994:26 (holotype transferred to USNM).

Trypoxylon saitamaense Tsuneki, 1973a:13, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Holotype: male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) , Japan: Saitama Prefecture: Kohnosu (originally T. Nambu coll., now Hyogo Mus.). Synonymized with Trypoxylon errans by Tsuneki, 1981e:59. – Nambu, 1973d:150 (Japan: Saitama Prefecture); Tsuneki, 1973e:34, 38 (in key); Nambu, 1975b:63 (Japan: Saitama Prefecture); Tano, 1995:41 (holotype in K. Tsuneki collection); Hashimoto and Nakanishi, 1997:23 (holotype transferred to Hyogo Mus.).

 

             Trypoxylon indicum Menke in Bohart and Menke, 1976:346. Replacement name for Trypoxylon ornatipes Cameron, 1913.

hova de Saussure

Trypoxylon hova de Saussure, 1892:525, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) . Syntypes: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), Madagascar: Antananarivo (MHNG). – Arnold, 1945:9 (Madagascar; male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) ); Leclercq, 1960a:99 (Madagascar); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:346 (listed); Tsuneki, 1981d:85 (Madagascar: Isalo, Mahajanga); Madl, 1997:820 (Madagascar: Nosy Boraha Island), 821 (in checklist of Nosy Boraha Sphecidae).

luteosignatum Arnold

Trypoxylon luteosignatum Arnold, 1945:11, male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) , female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Behara and Bekily (MNHN). – Leclercq, 1960a:99 (Madagascar); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:347 (listed); Hancock, Chahwanda, and Mhlanga, 1995:40 (syntype in Bulawayo Museum).

punctatissimum Arnold

Trypoxylon punctatissimum Arnold, 1924:20, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) . Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes), South Africa: Cape Province: Algoa Bay near Port Elizabeth (TMP). – Richards, 1934:338 (member of scutatum species group; as punctatissimum Gribodo); Arnold, 1945:11 (Madagascar; male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) ); Leclercq, 1960a:99 (Madagascar, nesting in twigs), 1965a:93 (in key), 119 (revision; Zaire); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:347 (listed); Tsuneki, 1978a:5 (in key); Rodgers and Homewood, 1982:234 (Tanzania: Usambara Mountains).

scutifrons de Saussure

Trypoxylon scutifrons de Saussure, 1892:523, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes). Syntypes: Madagascar: Andrangoloaka, Anosibé (MHNG). – Kohl, 1906a:201 (a species with frontal shield), 203 (in key to scutatum group); Kohl, 1909:373 (Madagascare: Toamasina); R. Turner, 1911b:373 (Seychelles Islands); Bordage, 1912:58 (Isle of Réunion: life history); von Schulthess in Friederichs, 1918:48 (Madagascar: Ilôt Prune); Richards, 1934:338 (member of scutatum species group), 344 (life history summary); Arnold, 1945:14 (Madagascar); Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1950:75 (new to Seychelles Islands, as saitifrons); Leclercq, 1960a:99 (Madagascar, nesting in old nests of Icaria, a vespid; variation), 1961d:101 (Madagascar); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:347 (listed); Tsuneki, 1978a:6, 7 (in key), 76 (redescription), 86 (relationships to other species), 1981f:47 (single member of scutifrons species group); Madl, Matyot, and Schödl, 1996:833 (Seychelles Islands); Madl, 1997:820 (Madagascar: Nosy Boraha Island), 821 (in checklist of Nosy Boraha Sphecidae).

seyrigi Arnold

Trypoxylon seyrigi Arnold, 1945:12, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) (as Seyrigi, incorrect original capitalization). Syntypes: Madagascar: Bekily, Ivondro, Ranomafana, Roget (MNHN). – R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:348 (listed); Tsuneki, 1978a:7 (in key).

sinuosiscute Arnold

Trypoxylon sinuosiscutis Arnold, 1945:13, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , male_symbol.jpg (1969 bytes) , incorrect original termination. Syntypes: Madagascar: Behara, Bekily (MNHN). – Leclercq, 1961d:101 (Madagascar); R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:348 (listed); Tsuneki, 1978a:6 (in key), 84 (redescription), 86 (relationships to other species), 1981f:17 (single member of sinuosiscute species group); Hancock, Chahwanda, and Mhlanga, 1995:40 (syntype in Bulawayo Museum).

tuberculifrons Arnold

 

Trypoxylon tuberculifrons Arnold, 1945:8, female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) . Holotype: female_symbol.jpg (1853 bytes) , Madagascar: Rogez (MNHN). – R. Bohart and Menke, 1976:348 (listed).

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