Panorpa carolinensis Banks, 1905
Diagnosis: This species is a member of the virginica group that has wings with three complete bands and no humeral spots along the basal margin; males with a horn on the 6th abdominal tergite; male hypovalves that are very thin and extend to the base of the dististyles; darkened medial core of the aedeagus; basal lobes of the dististyles with large projections; and male 9th tergite with rounded apico-medial indentation and relatively wide apical lobes (only about twice as long and broad). This species is also part of the carolinensis subgroup with wings that have colorless membrane between dark bands on the wings. This species is unique among members of this species group in that the male ventral parameres are thicker and strongly curved, crossing medially.
Distribution – Geographical: This species is found in the Black Mountains, Great Smoky Mountains and associated ranges at rather high altitudes (5,000 – 6,000 ft.)(Carpenter, 1931).
Distribution – Temporal: 31 May until 30 August with the peak emergence in late June and July.
Ecology: “It has been taken along shaded rills, particularly in the hardwood-hemlock forest, but it may well range up into the zone of spruce.” (Byers, 1954).
Biology: This species has been reared by George W. Byers and the fourth instar larva described by Boese (1973).
Banks, N. 1905. Descriptions of New Species of Neuropterous Insects from the Black Mountains, N.C. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 21:215-218.
Boese, A.E. 1973. Descriptions of larvae and key to fourth instars of North American Panorpa (Mecoptera: Panorpidae). Kansas University Science Bulletin, 50:163-186.
Carpenter, F.M. 1931. Revision of the Nearctic Mecoptera. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 72:205-277.