Neopanorpa ophthalmica Navás, 1911
Diagnosis: Vertex dark brown medially; orange laterally beside compound eyes. Meso- and metatergites dark medially; white laterally at bases of wings. Wing apical band present, often with pale spot in middle; pterostigmal band caudally forked, uninterrupted; basal band usually reduced to two large spots; marginal spots and other spots basal to basal band absent. Male notal organ narrowly elongate, extended to apex of 4th abdominal tergite. Male hypovalves with oval opening medially near base; apically tapered to point just beyond base of dististyles.
Distribution – Geographical: This species was originally described from Taiwan without specific locality information. Esben-Petersen (1913) recorded it from Taihorin (= Taihorinsho = Taihorinyo = Dalin Township, Chiayi County), 7 June 1911, 1♂, 3♀♀ H. Sauter (DEI); Hoozan (= Fengshan, Koahsiung County, 22.611°N, 120.35068°E), 7 August 1910, H. Sauter, 1♂ (DEI); Suisharyo ( = Shuisheliao, Zhuqi Township, Chiayi County), October 1911, H. Sauter, 1♂, 4♀♀ (DEI); Taihorinsho (= Taihorin, Dalin Township, Chiayi County), 7 September, H. Sauter, 1♂, 2♀♀ (DEI); and Alikang (= Kuanshan = Guanshan Village, Jiaxian, Kaohsiung County, 23.112566°N, 120.605679°E), August 1910, H. Sauter, 1♂, 2♀♀ (DEI). Navás (1930) records this species from Chip-Chip ((= Chi-Chi = Jiji Township, Nantou County, 23.8354°N, 120.7677°E,February 1909 (Hamburg Museum – destroyed during WWII). Issiki & Cheng (1947) reported 1♀ from Kueisan, 20 April 1947, (NTU). Yie (1951) reported this species from Musha (= Wushe, Ren-ai Township, Nantou County), 24.02655°N, 121.11753°E, 1200 m, May-June; Rengeji, >1000 m, March; and Raisha, 900 m, May and November. Current records indicate the following localities: Taipei County, 10.5 km E of Wu-Lai, 24°50.178’E, 121°39.159’E, 475 m, 4 May 2010, A. & N. Penny, M.L. Jeng, 4♂♂, 1♀ (CAS); Taitung County, Lijia, 22°48.355’N, 121°03.020’E, 472 m, 9 May 2010, A. & N. Penny, M.L. Jeng, 1♂, 1♀ (CAS); Ilan County, Qingshuei, Sansing Village, 24°37.457’N, 121°37.856’E, 255 m, 11 May 2010, A. & N. Penny, M.L. Jeng, 1♂, 10♀♀ (CAS); Nantou County, Lienhuachih Forest Research Centre, 23°55’30”N, 120°53’24”E, 274 m, 25 April 2010, A. & N. Penny, Y.-L. Chen, 3♂♂, 3♀♀ (CAS); Ilan County, Fushan Forest Research Centre, 24°45.517’N, 121°35.619’E, 671 m, 13 May 2010, A. & N. Penny, Y.-L. Chen, 2♀♀ (CAS); same data, except 14 May 2010, 2♂♂, 7♀♀ (CAS); same data, except 15 May 2010, 1♂ (CAS). This appears to be the most common lowland species of panorpid in Taiwan.
Distribution – Temporal: They have been collected during the months of February, March, April, May, June, August, September, October, November.
Ecology: This species appears to inhabit lowland forests with considerable moisture and high humidity areas near streams.
Biology: Yie (1951) indicates that there are 29.1 eggs per egg cluster. The morphology and development of the immature stages is discussed.
Notes: This species may have been named for the eye-like transparent spots on the wings.
Esben- Petersen, P. 1913. H. Sauter's Formosa-Ausbeute. Planipennia II, Megaloptera and Mecoptera. Entomologische Mitteilungen, 2:222-228, 257-265. 15 figures. [Ref. #130]
Navás, L. 1911. Névroptères nouveaux de l'extrème Orient. Russkoe Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie [=Revue Russe d'Entomologie] 11:111-117.
-----. 1930. Insecta orientalia. VIII Series. Memorie dell'Accademia pontifica dei Nuovi Lincei, Rome, (2)14:419-434, 7 figs.
Issiki, S. and F.-Y. Cheng. 1947. Formosan Mecoptera with Descriptions of New Species. Memoirs of the College of Agriculture, national Taiwan University, 1:1-17.
Yie, S.-T. 1951. The Biology of Formosan Panorpidae and Morphology of Eleven Species of their immature Stages. Memoirs of the College of Agriculture, National Taiwan University, 2(4):1-111