Robert C. Drewes

  • Curator
  • Herpetology
  • PhD

Evolutionary relationships of African ranoid frogs

Comparative physiology of arid-adapted anurans

Natural history and biogeography of the African herpetofauna

African studies

Stephen Spawls (UK)

Kim Howell (U. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania)

James Ashe (Bio-Ken Snake Park, Kenya)

S.S. Hillman (Portland State U.)

P. C. Withers (U. Western Australia)

S. D. Hillyard (U. Nevada, Las Vegas)

J. M. Sacherer (CAS)

B. Roth (CAS)

J. E. Simmons (CAS)

A. E. Leviton(CAS)

M., Tandy (U. Texas)

R. L Bezy (LACM)

M. J., Largen (Liverpool Museum, UK)

A. M. Bauer (Villanova U.)

J. V. Vindum (CAS)

R. Altig (Mississippi State U.)

A. Channing (U. Western Cape, South Africa)

A. Weiczorek (U. Western Cape, South Africa)

J.- L. Perret (Nat. Hist Mus., Geneva)

J. A. Wilkinson (CAS)

O. L. Tatum (Los Alamos Nat. Lab., NM)

R. E. Stoelting CAS)

G. J. Measey (Inst. Res. Devel., Bondy, France)

M. Vences (U. Braunschweig)

Y. Chiari (Zoological Museum, Amsterdam)

M. Melo (U. Edinburgh, Scotland)

B. Bourles (Inst. Res. Devel, Plouzane, France)

T. A., Gardiner (U. East Anglia)

E. B. Fitzherbert (U. East Anglia)

T. Caro (UC Davis)

J. Uyeda (Willamette U.),

B.M. Zimkus (Harvard U.)

F.  Andreone (Museum of Natural Science, Torino, Italy)

J. Gerlach

F. Glaw (Zoologische Staatssammlung, Munich, Germany)

S. Loader (BMNH, London)

S. Lotters (Mainz U., Germany)

M. Pickersgill (U. Leeds, UK)

M. Rodel (Humboldt Mus., Berlin)

A. Schiotz (Denmarks Aquarium, Copenhagen)

D. Vallan (U. Berne, Switzerland)

R. W. Putnam (UCLA), O. M. Sokol (Stanford U.)

J. Menon (M. S. University, Baroda, India)

S. K. Aggarwal (Michigan State U.)

V. H. Shoemaker (UC Riverside)

L. L. McClanahan (CSU Fullerton)

B. Fritsch (U. Bielefeld, Germany)

R. Ruibal (UC Riverside)

M. J. Ryan U. Texas, Austin)

G. K. Menon (UC VAMC)

P. F. A. Maderson (Brooklyn College, NY)

L. F. Baptista (CAS)

C. F. Price (UC VAMC)

P. M. Elias(UC VAMC)

K. Ren, R., Brizzi (U. Florence, Italy)

C. Corti(U. Florence, Italy)

G. Delfino (U. Florence, Italy)

M. S. Hedrick (CSU East Bay)

L. G. Wilson (CAS),

H. B. Constable (CAS)

S. Magherini (U. Florence, Italy)

C. Malentacchi (U. Florence, Italy)

D. Nosi (U. Florence, Italy)

A. Terrini (U. Florence, Italy)

R. W. Murphy (CAS)

S. B. Emerson (U. Utah)

C. Richards (Wayne State U.)

K. M. Kjer (Rutgers U.)

D. R. Frost (AMNH)

T. Grant (Columbia U)

. Faivovich (Columbia U)

R. H. Bain, (AMNH)

A. Haas (Zoological Museum, Hamburg, Germany)

C. F. B. Haddad (UNESP, Sao Paolo Brazil)

R. O. de Sa (U. Richmond)

M. Wilkinson (BMNH, London)

S. C. Donnellan (South Australia Museum, Adelaide)

C. J. Raxworthy (AMNH)

J. A. Campbell (U. Texas, Arlington)

B. Blotto (Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, Buenos Aires)

P. Moler (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Gainesville)

R. A. Nussbaum (U. Michigan)

J. D. Lynch (U. Nacional de Colombia, Bogota)

D. M. Green( Redpath Museum, McGill U Canada) 

W. C. Wheeler (AMNH), I. Das (U. Malaysia, Sarawak)


Department of Herpetology
California Academy of Sciences
55 Music Concourse Drive, Golden Gate Park
San Francisco, CA 94118


        B.A. (Biology)  1969    San Francisco State University
        Ph.D.(Biology)  1981    University of California, Los Angeles


1970- date       graduate student/senior technician advancing to Full Curator, Department of Herpetology, California Academy of Sciences.

1969-70          Assistant Director, Nairobi Snake Park, Kenya

1969-71          Teaching Assistant; curator, vertebrate collection, San Francisco State University

1967-68          Park Naturalist, San Mateo County Parks System (CA)


1992-2002       Chair, Department of Herpetology, California Academy of Sciences

1989-91         Director, Division of Public Programs, California Academy of Sciences

1983-89         Chair, Department of Herpetology, California Academy of Sciences


    * Evolutionary relationships of African ranoid frogs
    * Comparative physiology of arid-adapted anurans
    * Natural history and biogeography of the African herpetofauna
    * African studies


    * Military: veteran, 5th Special Forces Group (Airborne)
    * Languages:  fluent “upcountry” Kiswahili; working French, Spanish, German in descending order of proficiency
    * SCUBA qualified
    * Field work/travel: 59 foreign countries since 1966 (see appendices)


    * Research Professor in Biology, San Francisco State University
    * Affiliate Professor in Biology, University of Idaho
    * Scientific Associate, Department of Zoology, British Museum of Natural History
    * Research Associate, Zoology, University of the Western Cape (South  Africa)
    * Research Associate, Herpetology, National Museums of Kenya
    * Fellow, California Academy of Sciences
    * Fellow, Royal Geographical Society (London)
    * Fellow, California Institute for International Studies (Stanford University)


    * Society of Sigma Xi
    * American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists
    * Herpetologists League
    * Society for the Study of Reptiles and Amphibians
    * Herpetological Association of Africa
    * Bay Area Biosystematists
    * Wildlife Conservation Society of Tanzania
    * East African Natural History Society (Life Member)
    * Oxford University Expedition Society (Honorary Life Member)


    * Board of Directors, San Francisco Zoological Society 1977-80; 1983-95
    * Board of Directors, Marine World/Africa USA 1989- 1997
    * Board of Directors, Rafiki/Friends Foundation, Hillsborough, CA 1994-2000/
    * Trustee, Biodiversity Foundation for Africa, Zimbabwe 1992-date
    * Member, Species Survival Commission, IUCN – 1990-date


            Stephen M. Reilly – MA – SFSU (thesis committee)

            Jens V. Vindum – MA – SFSU (thesis committee)

            Margaret Davies – PhD – U. Adelaide (external examiner)

            Jonothan Losos – PhD – UCB (orals committee)

            Elizabeth Dunbar – MA – SFSU (co-advisor)

            Mary Ellen Holden – PhD – UCB (orals committee)

            Wendy Roberts – PhD – UCB  (thesis committee)

            Robert Sprackland –PhD U. Idaho (co-advisor)

            Mutugi Chira – MSc – U. Nairobi  (external examiner)

            Mathias Behangana – MSc – Makerere U. (external examiner)

            Stephen Kigoolo – MSc—Makerere U. (external examiner)

            Charles Msuya – PhD-- U. Dar es Salaam (informal co-advisor)

            Heidi Robeck – MSc – SFSU (co-advisor)

            Lindsay Henwood Wilson – MSc -- SFSU (advisor)

            Ania M. Wiezcorek – PhD – U. Western Cape (co-advisor)

            Mathys J. Meyer – MA – Illinois State U. (thesis committee)

            Rachel M. Norris – PhD-- U. Adelaide (external examiner)

            Elizabeth Scott – PhD – U. Western Cape (external examiner)

            Ricka Stoelting – MSc – SFSU (advisor)

            Monica Johnson – MSc – SFSU (advisor)

            Meghan R. Bishop – MSc –SFSU (advisor)


            1980  NSF IOB 80910953   AAS Physiology Symposium

            1980  NSF DEB 8014250   Support for Collections

            1986  NSF DEB 8601255   Computerization of Collections

            1996  NSF DEB 9630908   Dept Facilities Upgrade

            1997  NSF DEB  9708979  Replacement of Metal Tags

            2001  NSF DBI  0132303    Anuran Lymph Model

            2005  NSF DEB  9876766  Support for Tissue Collection      

            2003  NSF DBI  0133203    HerpNet Database

            2009  NSF  IOS 0843082    Tests of a Physical Model of Lymph Flow 


A Field Guide to the Reptiles of East Africa.  Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi. 2002. by Stephen Spawls, Kim Howell, Robert Drewes and James Ashe. Academic Press. San Diego, San Francisco, New York, Boston, London, Sydney, Tokyo. 543pp., 3 maps,  31figs. 2002. 2nd printing (with corrections). 2004. 3rd printing (with corrections). ISBN 0-12-656470-1.

Pocket Guide to the Reptiles and Amphibians of East Africa. 2006. Stephen Spawls, Kim M. Howell and Robert C. Drewes.  (May) A&C Black Publishers Ltd, London. (Aug) Princeton University Press, Princeton and Oxford.  240p. 278 maps.  ISBN 10: 0-716-7425-3. ISBN-13: 978-0-7136-7325-5.

Ecological and Environmental Physiology of Amphibians. 2009. S.S. Hillman, P. C. Withers, R. C. Drewes, and S. D. Hillyard. Oxford University Press, Oxford. xii + 469. ISBN 978-0-19-857031-8; ISBN 978-0-19-857032-5.


Peer-reviewed journals

African Herpetology

Drewes, R. C. 1971. Notes on the distribution of Holodactylus africanus Boettger. J. E. Afr. Nat. Hist Soc. Natn. Mus. 128(126):1-3.

Drewes, R. C. 1972. Report on a collection of reptiles and amphibians from the Ilemi Triangle, southeastern Sudan. Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci. 100:1-14.

Drewes, R. C. & S. Spawls. The occurrence of the colubrid snake, Psammophis pulcher in Kenya. Herpetologica 29(4):306-307.

Drewes, R. C. & J. M. Sacherer. 1974. A new population of carpet vipers, Echis carinatus from northern Kenya. J. E. Afr. Nat. Hist Soc. Natn. Mus. 145:1-7.

Drewes, R. C. 1976. Report on an expedition to Kakamega Forest. E. Afr. Nat. Hist. Soc. Bull. Nov/Dec.:122-126.

Drewes, R. C. & B. Roth. 1981. Snail-eating frogs from the Ethiopian highlands: a new anuran specialization. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 72(3): 267-287.

Drewes, R. C., J. E. Simmons & A. E. Leviton. 1982. A numerical synopsis of the African holdings in the Department of Herpetology, California Academy of Sciences. J. Herp. Assoc. Afr. 27:1-6.

Drewes, R. C. 1984. A phylogenetic analysis of the Hyperoliidae (Anura): Treefrogs of Africa, Madagascar and the Seychelles Islands.  Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci. 139:1-70.

Tandy, M. & R. C. Drewes. 1985. Mating calls of the “kassinoid” genera Kassina, Kassinula, Phlyctimantis and Tornierella (Anura: Hyperoliidae). So. Afr. J. Sci. 81(4):191-195.

Bezy, R. L. & R. C. Drewes. 1985. Systematic status of the East African colubrid snake Psammophis biseriatus tanganicus Loveridge 1940. J. Herp. 19(2):246-253.

R. C. Drewes. 1985. A case of paraphyly in the genus Kassina Girard, 1853. So. Afr. J. Sci. 81(4):186-191.

Largen, M. J. & R. C. Drewes. 1989. A new genus and species of brevicipitine frog (Amphibia Anura Microhylidae) from high altitude in the mountains of Ethiopia. Trop. Zool. 2:13-30.

Drewes, R. C., R. Altig & K. M. Howell. 1989. Tadpoles of three frog species (Anura) endemic to the forests of the Eastern Arc mountains, Tanzania. Amphibia-Reptilia 10:435-443.

Bauer, A. M., J. V. Vindum & R. C. Drewes. 1992. A summary of African holdings and African research of the Department of Herpetology, California Academy of Sciences. J. Herp. Assoc. Afr. 41:10-13.

Drewes, R. C. & J. V. Vindum. 1994. Amphibians of the Impenetrable Forest, southwest Uganda. J. Afr. Zool. 108(1):55-70.

Drewes, R. C. &  R. Altig 1996. Anuran egg predation and heterocannibalism in a breeding community of East African frogs. Trop. Zool. 9:333-347.

Drewes, R. C. 1997. A new species of treefrog from the Serengeti National Park. Tanzania (Anura: Hyperoliidae: Hyperolius). Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 49(13):439-446.

Channing, A. & R. C. Drewes. 1997. Description of the tadpole of Bufo kisoloensis. Alytes 15:13-18.

Drewes, R. C. 1997. Herpetology in Uganda and Kenya [abstract]; in Rozcek, Z. & S. Hart (Eds.) Abstracts of the Third World Congress of Herpetology. Prague, Czech Republic: 57.

Weiczorek, A. M., A. Channing & R. C. Drewes. 1997. Evolutionary relationships of the polymorphic African reed frog complex, Hyperolius spp.[abstract]. in Rozcek, Z. & S. Hart (Eds.) Abstracts of the Third World Congress of Herpetology. Prague, Czech Republic: 227.

Wieczorek, A., A. Channing & R. C. Drewes. 1998. A review of the taxonomy of the Hyperolius viridiflavus complex. Herp. J. (1):29-34.

Drewes, R. C. 1999. Comments on the status of Schoutedenella Witte, 1921. [abstract] in 10th Meeting of the African Amphibian Working Group, Stellenbosch, RSA.

Drewes, R. C. & J.- L. Perret. 2000. A new species of giant, montane Phrynobatrachus (Anura: Ranidae) from the central mountains of Kenya. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 52(5):55-64.

Wieczorek, A. M., R. C. Drewes & A. Channing. 2000. Biogeography and evolutionary history of Hyperolius species: application of molecular phylogeny. J. Biogeogr. 27(5):1231-1243.

Wieczorek, A. M., R. C. Drewes & A. Channing. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships within the Hyperolius viridiflavus complex (Anura, Hyperoliidae), and comments on taxonomy. Amphibia-Reptilia 22(2):155-166.

Wilkinson, J. A., R. C. Drewes & O. L. Tatum 2002. A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the family Rhacophoridae with an emphasis on the Asian and African genera. Mol. Phylog. Ev. 24:265-273.

Drewes, R. C. & J. A. Wilkinson. The California Academy of Sciences Gulf of Guinea Expedition (2001) I. The taxonomic status of the genus Nesionixalus Perret (Anura: Hyperoliidae), treefrogs of São Tomé and Príncipe, with comments on the genus Hyperolius. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 55 (20):395-407.

Drewes, R. C. & R. E. Stoelting. 2004.  The California Academy of Sciences Gulf of Guinea Expedition (2001)  II. Additions and corrections to our knowledge of the endemic amphibians of São Tomé and Príncipe. Proc Calif. Acad. Sci. 55 (31):573-587.

Measey, G. J., M. Vences, R. C. Drewes, Y. Chiari, M. Melo and B. Bourles. 2007. Freshwater paths across the ocean: Molecular phylogeny of the frog Ptychadena newtoni gives insights into amphibian colonization of oceanic islands. Journal of Biogeography 34: 7-20.  

Gardiner, T. A., E. B. Fitzherbert, R. C. Drewes, K. M. Howell and T. Caro. 2007. Spatial and temporal patterns of abundance and diversity of an East African leaf  litter amphibian fauna. Biotropica  39(1): 105-113. 

Uyeda, J., R. C. Drewes, and B.M. Zimkus. 2007. The California Academy of Sciencees Gulf of Guinea Expeditions (2001, 2006)  VI.   A new species of Phrynobatrachus from the Gulf of Guinea Islands and a reanalysis of Phrynobatrachus dispar and P. feae (Anura: Phrynobatrachidae). Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 58:367-385.     

Drewes, R.C. 2008. Biogeographic implications of intriguing relationship patterns of endemic amphibians of the Gulf of Guinea Islands. (pp. 231-234) In: Corti, C. (Ed.) 2008. Herpetologia Sardiniae. Soc. Herp. Ital/Edizione Belvedere, Latina “Le Scienze”(8) 504p.

Andreone, F., A. Channing, R. Drewes, J. Gerlach, F. Glaw, K. Howell, M. Largen, S. Loader, S. Lotters, M. Pickersgill, C. Raxworthy, M. Rodel, A. Schiotz, D. Vallan and M. Vences. 2008. Chapter 5. Amphibians of the Afrotropical Realm (pp. 53-58)  In. S. Stuart, M. Hoffman, J. Chanson, N. Cox, R. Berridge, P. Ramani and B. Young (Eds). Threatened  Amphibians of the World. Lynx Ediciones, Barcelona. xx+758p. 

Caro, T, O. Evans, E. Fitzherbert, T.A. Gardner, K. Howell, R.Drewes and H.B.Shaffer. 2011. Reptiles of Katavi Natinal Park, western Tanzania, are from different biomes.  Afr. J. Ecol.4 9:377-382.

Miller, E.C., A.B.Sellas and R.C.Drewes. 2012. A new species of Hemidactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) emidactylus geckos. Afr. J. Herp. 61:40-57.

Hydeman, M.E., R.C.Bell, R.C.Drewes and K. Zamudio.  2013. Amphibian chytrid fungus confirmed in endemic frogs and caecilians on the island São Tomé. Herp. Rev. 44: 254-257.



Drewes, R. C., S. S. Hillman, R. W. Putnam & O. M. Sokol. 1977. Water, nitrogen and ion balance in the desert treefrog Chiromantis petersi Boulenger (Anura: Rhacophoridae) with comments on the structure of the integument. J. Comp. Physiol. 116(39):257-267.

Withers, P. C., S. S. Hillman & R. C. Drewes. 1982. Water loss and nitrogen excretion in sharp-nosed reed frogs (Hyperolius nasutus: Anura, Hyperoliidae). J. exper. Biol. 97:335-343.

Withers, P. C., S. S. Hillman & R. C. Drewes. 1984. Evaporative water loss and skin lipids of anuran amphibians. J. Exper. Zool. 232:11-17.

Menon, J., S. K. Aggarwal & R. C. Drewes. 1986. Effects of cisplatin in metamorphosis in an anuran (Hyla regilla). Zool. Jb. Physiol. 90:537-543.

Shoemaker, V. H., L. L. McClanahan, P. C. Withers, S. S. Hillman & R. C. Drewes. 1987. Thermoregulatory response to heat in the waterproof frogs Phyllomedusa and Chiromantis. Physiol. Zool. 60(3):365-372.

Fritsch, B., R. C. Drewes & R. Ruibal. 1987. The retention of the lateral-line nucleus in adult anurans. Copeia 1987(1):127-135

Ryan, M. J. & R. C. Drewes. 1990. Vocal morphology of the Physalaemus pustulosus species group (Leptodactylidae): morphological response to sexual selection.  Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 40(1):37-52.

Menon, G. K., P. F. A. Maderson, R. C. Drewes, L. F. Baptista, C. F. Price & P. M. Elias 1996. Ultrastructural organization of avian stratum corneum lipids as the basis for facultative cutaneous waterproofing. J. Morph. 227:1-13.

Menon, J., K. Ren & R. C. Drewes 1998. Cisplatin arrests metamorphosis but not tail regeneration in anuran tadpoles: a morphologic and ultrastructural investigation. Bull. N. J. Acad. Sci. 43(2):13-19.

Hillman, S. S., P. C. Withers & R. C. Drewes. 2000. Correlation of ventricle mass and dehydration tolerance in amphibians. Herpetologica 56(4): 413-420.

Brizzi, R., C. Corti, G. Delfino & R. C. Drewes. Granules with repeating substructure in serous cutaneous glands in the Pacific treefrog Hyla regilla. (abstract). In. Abstracts of the 43th Congresso Nazionale, Societas Herpetologica Italica: 28.

Hillman, S. S., M. S. Hedrick, P. C. Withers & R. C. Drewes. Lymph pools in the basement, sump pumps in the attic: the anuran dilemma for lymph movement.  Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 77:161-168.

Brizzi, R, C. Corti, G. Delfino and R. Drewes. Ultrastructural patterns of secretory activity in serous cutaneous glands of the Pacific treefrog, Hyla regilla (Anura: Hylidae). Italian Journal of Zoology 71, suppl. 2: 77-80.

Hillman, S. S., P. C. Withers, M. S. Hedrick and R. C. Drewes. 2005. Functional roles for the compartmentalization of the subcutaneous lymphatic sacs of anuran amphibians. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 78: 515-523.

Drewes, R. C., S. S. Hillman, M. S. Hedrick, L. G. Wilson, H. B. Constable and P. C. Withers. 2005. [abstract]. The anuran lymphatic system: how frogs “get it up.” Addendum to Abstracts, p. 1. Programme and Abstracts. 5th World Congress of Herpetology, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Delfino, G., R. C. Drewes, S. Magherini, C. Malentacchi, D. Nosi and A. Terrini. 2006. Serous glands of the Pacific tree-frog  Hyla regilla (Anura: Hylidae): Patterns of secretory release induced by nor-epinephrine.  Cell and Tissue: 38:65-77.

Hedrick, M.S., S.S. Hillman, R.C.Drewes and P.C.Withers. Lung ventilation is coupled with lymph movement in anuran amphibians. Society of Experimental Biology Comaprative Biochemistry and Physiology 143A:S70.

Drewes, R. C., M.S. Hedrick, S.S.Hillman and P.C. Withers. 2007. Unique role of skeletal muscle contraction in vertical lymph movement in anurans.  Journal of Experimental Zoology 210:3931-3939.

Hedrick, M.S., R. C. Drewes, S.S. Hillman and P.C.Withers. 2007. Lung ventilation contributes to vertical lymph movement in anurans. Journal of Experimental Zoology 210:3940-3945

Hillman, S.S., M.S.Hedrick, R.C.Drewes and P.C.Withers. 2010. Lymph flux rates from various lymph sacs in the cane toad Rhinella marina: an experimental evaluation of the roles of compliance, sekeletal muscles and the lungs in the movement of lymph.   J. Exper. Zool.213: 3161-3166.

Hillman, S.S., R.C.Drewes, M.S.Hedrick and P.C.Withers. 2011. Interspecific comparison of lymph volume and lymphatic fluxes: Do lymph reserves and lymph mobilization capacities vary in anurans from different environments? Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 84:268-276.

Hedrick, M.S., S.S.Hillman, R.C.Drewes and P.C.Withers. 2011. Pulmonary compliance and lung volume varies with ecomorphology in anuran amphibians: implications for ventilator-assisted lymph flux.  J. Exper. Biol. 214: 3279-3285.

Drewes, R.C., S.S. Hillman, M.S.Hedrick and P.C.Withers. 2013. Evolutionary implications of the distribution and variation of the skeletal muscles of the anuran lymphatic system. Zoomorph. 132:339-349.

Hedrick, M.S., S.S.Hillman, R.C.Drewes and P.C.Withers. 2013. Lymphatic regulation in nonmammalian vertebrates. J. Appl. Physiol.  115:297-308.

Hillman, S.S., R. C. Drewes, M.S.Hedrick and T.V.Hancock 2013. Physiological vagility: Correlations with dispersal and population genetic structure of amphibians. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. DOI 10-1086/671109 


General Herpetology

R. W. Murphy & R. C. Drewes 1976. Comments on the occurrence of Smilisca baudini (Dumeril et Bibron) (Amphibia: Hylidae) in Bexar County, Texas. Texas J. Sci. 27(3):406-407.

Drewes, R. C. & A. E. Leviton 1978. Rediscovery of Lampropeltis nitida Van Denburgh (Reptila, Serpentes, Colubridae) in Baja California Sur, Mexico. J. Herp. 12(1):102-103.

Drewes, R. C. 1985. Amphibian Species of the World (Contibutor/Committee). Allen Press/Assoc. Syst. Colls: v+732.

Emerson, S. B., C. Richards, R. C. Drewes & K. M. Kjer 2000. On the relationships among ranoid frogs: a review of the evidence. Herpetologica 56(2):209-230.

Wilkinson, J. A. & R. C. Drewes 2000. Character assessment, genus level boundaries and phylogenetic analyses of the Family Rhacophoridae: a review and present day status.  Contemp. Herp. 2000 2:1-27, 54 figs.

Frost, D. R., T. Grant, J. Faivovich, R. H. Bain, A. Haas, C. F. B. Haddad, R. O. de Sa, A. Channing, M. Wilkinson, S. C. Donnellan, C. J. Raxworthy, J. A. Campbell, B. Blotto, P. Moler, R. C. Drewes, R. A. Nussbaum, J. D. Lynch, D. M. Green and W. C. Wheeler. 2006. The amphibian tree of life. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 297:1-370.

Frost, D. R., T. Grant, J. Faivovich, R. H. Bain, A. Haas, C. F. B. Haddad, R. O. de Sa, A. Channing, M. Wilkinson, S. C. Donnellan, C. J. Raxworthy, J. A. Campbell, B. Blotto, P. Moler, R. C. Drewes, R. A. Nussbaum, J. D. Lynch, D. M. Green and W. C. Wheeler. 2008. Is The amphibian tree of life really fatally flawed? Cladistics 24:385-395.



Learn about some of Bob Drewes’ work and achievements at the Academy in this brief bio.


  • Robert C. Drewes
  • Curator
  • California Academy of Sciences
  • 55 Music Concourse Drive
  • San Francisco, CA 94118
  • 415-379-5286 (direct)

African Frogs

Visit Dr. Bob Drewes' pages on The Frogs of the Impenetrable Forest, Frogs of the Arabuko-Sokoke Forest, Gulf of Guinea Treefrogs, and the discovery of a new Serengeti Treefrog.  The Amphibian and Predator list, available on the Arabuko-Sokoke Forest page, contains images, sounds, and descriptions of the frogs, some of the predators, and other inhabitants.


Gulf of Guinea Islands Biodiversity Project, Herpetofauna of Myanmar, and the China Natural History Project - Yunnan

Dr. Drewes Gulf of Guinea Blog

Our eighth expedition has been a very different one; except for GG V this has been our only all-education mission.  Readers will recall that our biodiversity awareness program began in 2010 when we assessed the curriculum for biology in school across both islands. Then we began annual distribution of educational materials to a cohort of […]
The Biodiversity Education team has been hard at work on our product for GG VIII, of April, 2014.  The 2000 students we have been visiting since the 3rd grade are now in the 5th grade and will be moving on next year, so this is our last visit with them.  We have produced a slightly […]